> \plibr Ba==xB#8X@"1Arial1Arial1Arial1Arial1Arial1 Arial CE1Arial1@<Arial1+Arial1Arial1Arial1Calibri1 Calibri1>Calibri1?Calibri1Calibri14Calibri1 Calibri1,8Calibri18Calibri18Calibri1<Calibri14Calibri1Calibri1Calibri1
Calibri1h8Cambria1Calibri/#,##0"@.";\#,##0"@."9#,##0"@.";[Red]\#,##0"@.";#,##0.00"@.";\#,##0.00"@."E #,##0.00"@.";[Red]\#,##0.00"@."k*3_* #,##0"@."_;\* #,##0"@."_;_* """@."_;_@_k)3_* #,##0_@_._;\* #,##0_@_._;_* ""_@_._;_@_{,;_* #,##0.00"@."_;\* #,##0.00"@."_;_* ""??"@."_;_@_{+;_* #,##0.00_@_._;\* #,##0.00_@_._;_* ""??_@_._;_@_7#,##0\ "zB";\#,##0\ "zB"A#,##0\ "zB";[Red]\#,##0\ "zB"C#,##0.00\ "zB";\#,##0.00\ "zB"M$#,##0.00\ "zB";[Red]\#,##0.00\ "zB"w9_* #,##0\ "zB"_;\* #,##0\ "zB"_;_* ""\ "zB"_;_@_w9_* #,##0\ _z_B_;\* #,##0\ _z_B_;_* ""\ _z_B_;_@_A_* #,##0.00\ "zB"_;\* #,##0.00\ "zB"_;_* ""??\ "zB"_;_@_A_* #,##0.00\ _z_B_;\* #,##0.00\ _z_B_;_* ""??\ _z_B_;_@_
0000000000LG_[$809]* #,##0.00_;\[$809]* #,##0.00_;_[$809]* ""??_;_@_
` ff P P a> !x<
<
8
<
8
<
<
<
!< x< !< 1< 1< * 8 !20% akcent 1!20% akcent 2!20% akcent 3!20% akcent 4!20% akcent 5!20% akcent 6!40% akcent 1!40% akcent 2!40% akcent 3!40% akcent 4!40% akcent 5!40% akcent 6!60% akcent 1!60% akcent 2!60% akcent 3!60% akcent 4! 60% akcent 5!!60% akcent 6
"Akcent 1
#Akcent 2
$Akcent 3
%Akcent 4
&Akcent 5
'Akcent 6!(Dane wej[ciowe!)Dane wyj[ciowe
*Dobry'+Komrka poBczona,Komrka zaznaczona
NagBwek 1.
NagBwek 2/
NagBwek 30
NagBwek 41 Neutralny2Normalny_CUP3Normalny_SAPCMDET58614
Obliczenia 5Suma'6Tekst obja[nienia'7Tekst ostrzeenia8TytuB
9Uwaga:ZBy;<=>?`XCUP!
;"ffP@b͕_KaJmL]nU͕_KaJmLPNG
IHDR<xWPLTEVXRsssU)))RRRJJJ{"
yV:::XXPG33e^(]_jfff)
z1N3!!!333w88p[?Hssz{?4T/[[[`)o2nE*{sŁH
r
CCBBBnR "GK${lf3smF
23倁cX$!!j]A2#
eHq! [5bzz%))!99r@s9ffacff4 f "o)XF*}tRNSxbKGDHgIFg>UcmPPJCmp0712HsIDAThCZWL*®%DhbIcMD($!n(bHF2f`d^I
;a[~Â6A1ֶ}9Ud
[JF/*
ڽ\Wh.cs, VVl}Gݳtgub}9guwKЃ
ve[O%Y[[oW{G@]uq:\gpEz`}}b>mgbgy1NX>kAStMjQo2L.[27%!Dh,r+V&d'Ociލ{jg8v1϶bFLSlW'0JQ348;iJ6Qm[KBI6>cr5lLhflIB̘JMUV
5+*ighbaF(͒P,Ͻ_^xY8?Uk5 BdC4A2ILcJe/L2>y2'j ,UDLHe )l!b*\o+sd%=D׃TQpf1Zn"zWc# \xE0kzbF6k^H&p6"1rۺYqqEDәR":aI*4,l%f9 gDfI3Z
Pt$`(͍D BgqbzoɝZ'ߴ_Luٽ!5=
NkuuGt"%*6=U8Zmh Dl]4>DxfzL0;kX3eRd~M#K/>ɭwrD=zko"
vJ_Bt({J*LQ5ХPt$UŸ:4}Y07lF{gKjbyuor.(2nuF]iF(xtD][н_^JA@]4,!A'`{Lz_}OWY]u.YY[FXvYGv;P$6)U2u˒3}8=$q_^Qg A,ϞO(z3 !6s<鹢oHQ]}C_zՅvonwi;Aoޝε^WHPy:ۚVl.;K>3k4b8(y3vƃ6[=ل#Y4H_y.L/WW=NF'w)n\L}="l6eNմ2m5=KfoEڔ34Vf>oAYIPMA^yг+O *(#
n`۴U=V3a=?y7NfF#ޤ)*mJy r{dqҹzob`32ΦͶ/:';oT'Ɗ̈Xl5 P<ZAeA
:>8`3X4+^`+,Qcc+ˍ{K'oHK?%L'F?zAWP":/ĄJa8p<,Б3 " &.i73U
,V"V@bDV,v16,2.,v.>^L?~CwPr7Bn#GwaХLY0Λ,.1NeeeL&
59];u>s\gvwsPub%XCg"6@w+lfnlP#ts%lFfYa
nFcCYY$bI?8[O>xgAoL,#ٻ7ooGO>.Ci˨!QBB c6Q:*s07[pu) MQ~ç3lw9@~?[krjǊ̞ #noN'^n5dj1(Qh$Qj$ХB9fr \a6 TB
n'.tXonMO*2W_zrjZ"XNp7pjP}
rGh Al,NHSO57v'^U[oxWSF'H [HE_;ݷM@Q#$tZJ,b/RH>b.Ǝ' T
擷gOm;~=oh3IGY!VIig/:$l7>/Yv!HɎ1id,)=PT?%Ee8A2N&~Lг(J:"yE
LfN"˖R"BL놿еϏ[SȌ\nͭOCHȘSt]g1!F/ܶm:4ll)DutZm_0MQ6x/L
drcY>ar&e"N"s{o5w1ܸ1å}9B/=yQ=QDJkyy#88i?~dJؾt2>r4t;
!o}GN4nQSvQt@
WB_idpco\(
Eڮi# IENDB`3A@@
@Being the Report of the Imperial Geophysical Experimental SurveyOriginally published in 1931, this book contains the report of the Imperial Geophysical Experimental Survey regarding an extended field study carried out in various parts of Australia from 1928 to 1930. The aim of the study was to test the applicability of geophysical methods in a range of conditions which were seen as representative of different parts of the British Empire. Electrical, gravimetric, magnetic and, to a limited extent, seismic methods were examined in areas containing sulphide and other ores, brown coal, graphite and saline waters. The text contains an account of the study, together with numerous illustrative figures and a detailed index, it will be of value to anyone with an interest in the development of geophysics.'CUP Solid Earth Geophysics  March 2016The selfpotential method enables nonintrusive assessment and imaging of disturbances in electrical currents of conductive subsurface materials. It has an increasing number of applications, from mapping fluid flow in the subsurface of the Earth to detecting preferential flow paths in earth dams and embankments. This book provides the first full overview of the fundamental concepts of this method and its applications in the field. It discusses a historical perspective, laboratory investigations undertaken, the inverse problem and seismoelectric coupling, and concludes with the application of the selfpotential method to geohazards, water resources and hydrothermal systems. Chapter exercises, online datasets and analytical software enable the reader to put the theory into practice. This book is a key reference for academic researchers and professionals working in the areas of geophysics, environmental science, hydrology and geotechnical engineering. It will also be valuable reading for related graduate courses.Frankel!The Continental Drift ControversyUhistory of science, earth science, plate tectonics, geophysics, philosophy of scienceResolution of the sixtyyear debate over continental drift, culminating in the triumph of plate tectonics, changed the very fabric of Earth science. This fourvolume treatise on the continental drift controversy is the first complete history of the origin, debate and gradual acceptance of this revolutionary theory. Based on extensive interviews, archival papers and original works, Frankel weaves together the lives and work of the scientists involved, producing an accessible narrative for scientists and nonscientists alike. This fourth volume explains the discoveries in the mid 1960s which led to the rapid acceptance of seafloor spreading theory and how birth of plate tectonics followed soon after with the geometrification of geology. Although plate tectonics did not explain the cause or dynamic mechanism of drifting continents, it provided a convincing kinematic explanation that continues to inspire geodynamic research to the present day.Long4Acquisition and Analysis of Terrestrial Gravity DataEgeophysics, civil engineering, environmental engineering, archaeology=Gravity surveys have a huge range of applications, indicating density variations in the subsurface and identifying manmade structures, local changes of rock type or even deepseated structures at the crust/mantle boundary. This important onestop book combines an introductory manual of practical procedures with a full explanation of analysis techniques, enabling students, geophysicists, geologists and engineers to understand the methodology, applications and limitations of a gravity survey. Filled with examples from a wide variety of acquisition problems, the book instructs students in avoiding common mistakes and misconceptions. It explores the increasing nearsurface geophysical applications being opened up by improvements in instrumentation and provides more advancelevel material as a useful introduction to potential theory. This is a key text for graduate students of geophysics and for professionals using gravity surveys, from civil engineers and archaeologists to oil and mineral prospectors and geophysicists seeking to learn more about the Earth's deep interior.Moczo5The FiniteDifference Modelling of Earthquake MotionsWaves and RupturesQearthquake seismology, applied mathematics, computational and numerical modellingHAmong all the numerical methods in seismology, the finitedifference (FD) technique provides the best balance of accuracy and computational efficiency. This book offers a comprehensive introduction to FD and its applications to earthquake motion. Using a systematic tutorial approach, the book requires only undergraduate degreelevel mathematics and provides a userfriendly explanation of the relevant theory. It explains FD schemes for solving wave equations and elastodynamic equations of motion in heterogeneous media, and provides an introduction to the rheology of viscoelastic and elastoplastic media. It also presents an advanced FD timedomain method for efficient numerical simulations of earthquake ground motion in realistic complex models of local surface sedimentary structures. Accompanied by a suite of online resources to help put the theory into practice, this is a vital resource for professionals and academic researchers using numerical seismological techniques, and graduate students in earthquake seismology, computational and numerical modelling, and applied mathematics.Ohnaka+The Physics of Rock Failure and EarthquakesFsolid earth geophysics, earthquake seismology, rock physics, tectonicsHDespite significant advances in the understanding of earthquake generation processes and derivation of underlying physical laws, controversy remains regarding the constitutive law for earthquake ruptures and how it should be formulated. Laboratory experiments are necessary to obtain highresolution measurements that allow the physical nature of shear rupture processes to be deduced, and to resolve the controversy. This important book provides a deeper understanding of earthquake processes from nucleation to their dynamic propagation. Its key focus is a deductive approach based on laboratoryderived physical laws and formulae, such as a unifying constitutive law, a constitutive scaling law, and a physical model of shear rupture nucleation. Topics covered include: the fundamentals of rock failure physics, earthquake generation processes, physical scale dependence, and largeearthquake generation cycles. Designed for researchers and professionals in earthquake seismology, rock failure physics, geology and earthquake engineering, it is also a valuable reference for graduate students.Douglas)Forensic Seismology and Nuclear Test Bansseismology, geophysics, geologyWith the signing in 1996 of the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty, interest has grown in forensic seismology: the application of seismology to nuclear test ban verification. This book, based on over 50 years of experience in forensic seismology research, charts the development of methods of seismic data analysis. Topics covered include: the estimation of seismic magnitudes, traveltime tables and epicentres; seismic signal processing; and the use of seismometer arrays. Fully illustrated with seismograms from explosions and earthquakes, the book demonstrates methods and problems of visual analysis. Each chapter provides exercises to help the reader familiarise themselves with practical issues in the field of forensic seismology, and figures and solutions to exercises are also available online. The book is a key reference work for academic researchers and specialists in the area of forensic seismology and Earth structure, and will also be valuable to postgraduates in seismology and solid earth geophysics. Source Mechanisms of Earthquakeseseismology, tectonophysics, geodynamics, geomechanics, seismic hazard assessment, seismic engineeringaThis book presents an innovative new approach to studying source mechanisms of earthquakes, combining theory and observation in a unified methodology, with a key focus on the mechanics governing fault failures. It explains source mechanisms by building from fundamental co< ncepts such as the equations of elasticity theory to more advanced problems including dislocation theory, kinematic models and fracture dynamics. The theory is presented first in studentfriendly form using consistent notation throughout, and with full, detailed mathematical derivations that enable students to follow each step. Later chapters explain the widelyused practical modelling methods for source mechanism determination, linking clearly to the theoretical foundations, and highlighting the processing of digital seismological data. Providing a unique balance between application techniques and theory, this is an ideal guide for graduate students and researchers in seismology, tectonophysics, geodynamics and geomechanics, and a valuable practical resource for professionals working in seismic hazard assessment and seismic engineering.TalwaniIntraplate Earthquakescseismology, tectonics, tectonophysics, geodesy, structural geology, earthquake dynamics, geophysics:Intraplate earthquakes occur away from tectonic plate boundaries: their locations are difficult to predict, risking huge damage and loss of life. The 2001 Bhuj earthquake (featured in this book) was the largest intraplate earthquake for three decades and has provided unique insight into these events. This cuttingedge book brings together research from international leading experts in the field. Each chapter provides a comprehensive review of these earthquakes in a different global location, ranging from Australia, China, India and the Sea of Japan, to Western Europe, Brazil, New Madrid (Central USA), and Eastern Canada. They explore similarities and differences between regional features and the mechanical models required to explain them, as well as assessing geophysical techniques used to investigate them. Providing the first global overview of intraplate earthquakes, this is an essential book for academic researchers and professionals in seismology, tectonics, tectonophysics, geodesy, structural geology, earthquake dynamics, geophysics, and structural engineering.TongExtraterrestrial Seismology"Planetary science and astrobiologyOseismology, asteroseismology, helioseismology, planetary science, lunar geology}Seismology is a highly effective tool for investigating the internal structure of the Earth. Similar techniques have also successfully been used to study other planetary bodies (planetary seismology), the Sun (helioseismology), and other stars (asteroseismology). Despite obvious differences between stars and planetary bodies, these disciplines share many similarities and together form a coherent field of scientific research. This unique book takes a transdisciplinary approach to seismology and seismic imaging, reviewing the most recent developments in these extraterrestrial contexts. With contributions from leading scientists, this timely volume systematically outlines the techniques used in observation, data processing, and modelling for asteroseismology, helioseismology, and planetary seismology, drawing comparisons with seismic methods used in geophysics. Important recent discoveries in each discipline are presented. With an emphasis on transcending the traditional boundaries of astronomy, solar, planetary and Earth sciences, this novel book is an invaluable resource and reference for undergraduates, postgraduates and academics. HelffrichThe Seismic Analysis CodeA Primer and User's Guide(global seismology, earthquake seismologyThe Seismic Analysis Code (SAC) is one of the most widely used analysis packages for regional and teleseismic seismic data. For the first time, this book provides users at introductory and advanced levels with a complete guide to SAC. It leads new users of SAC through the steps of learning basic commands, describes the SAC processing philosophy, and presents its macro language in full, supported throughout with example inputs and outputs from SAC. For more experienced practitioners, the book describes SAC's many hidden features, including advanced graphics aspects, its file structure, how to write independent programs to access and create files, and much more. Tutorial exercises engage users with newly acquired skills, providing data and code to implement the standard methods of teleseismic shearwave splitting and receiver function analysis. Methodical and authoritative, this is a key resource for researchers and graduate students in global seismology, earthquake seismology and geophysics.<structural geology, tectonics, geophysics, petroleum geology<This marketleading textbook has been fully updated in response to extensive user feedback. It includes a new chapter on joints and veins, additional examples from around the world, stunning new field photos, and extended online resources with new animations and exercises. The book's practical emphasis, hugely popular in the first edition, features applications in the upper crust, including petroleum and groundwater geology, highlighting the importance of structural geology in exploration and exploitation of petroleum and water resources. Carefully designed fullcolour illustrations work closely with the text to support student learning, and are supplemented with highquality photos from around the world. Examples and parallels drawn from practical everyday situations engage students, and endof chapter review questions help them to check their understanding. Updated elearning modules are available online (www.cambridge.org/fossen2e) and further reinforce key topics using summaries, innovative animations to bring concepts to life, and additional examples and figures.Earthquake Time Bombsqnatural hazards, city planning, earth science, solid earth geophysics, structural geology, tectonics, geodynamicsIn a media interview in January 2010, scientist Robert Yeats sounded the alarm on PortauPrince, Haiti, as an 'earthquake time bomb', a region at critical risk of major seismic activity. One week later, a catastrophic earthquake struck the city, leaving over 100,000 dead and triggering a humanitarian crisis. In this timely study, Yeats sheds new light on other earthquake hotspots around the world and the communities at risk. He examines these seismic threats in the context of recent cultural history, including economic development, national politics and international conflicts. Descriptions of emerging seismic resilience plans from some cities provide a more hopeful picture. Essential reading for policymakers, infrastructure and emergency planners, scientists, students and anyone living in the shadow of an earthquake, this book raises the alarm so that we can protect our vulnerable cities before it's too late.Dehant,Precession, Nutation and Wobble of the EarthSgeodesy, solid Earth geophysics, geophysics, planetary physics, celestial mechanicsCovering both astronomical and geophysical perspectives, this book describes changes in the Earth's orientation, specifically precession and nutation, and how they are observed and computed in terms of tidal forcing and models of the Earth's interior. Following an introduction to key concepts and elementary geodetic theory, the book describes how precise measurements of the Earth's orientation are made using observations of extragalactic radiosources by Very Long Baseline Interferometry techniques. It demonstrates how models are used to accurately pinpoint the location and orientation of the Earth with reference to the stars and how to determine variations in its rotation speed. A theoretical framework is also presented that describes the role played by the structure and properties of the Earth's deep interior. Incorporating suggestions for future developments in nutation theory for the next generation models, this book is ideal for advancedlevel students and researchers in solid Earth geophysics, planetary science and astronomy.Garnier"Passive Imaging with Ambient NoiseComputational science:wave propagation, mathematical seismology, imaging scienceWaves generated by opportunistic or ambient noise sources and recorded by passive sensor arrays can be used to image the medium through which they travel. Spectacular results have< been obtained in seismic interferometry, which open up new perspectives in acoustics, electromagnetics, and optics. The authors present, for the first time in book form, a selfcontained and unified account of correlationbased and ambient noise imaging. In order to facilitate understanding of the core material, they also address a number of related topics in conventional sensor array imaging, wave propagation in random media, and highfrequency asymptotics for wave propagation. Taking a multidisciplinary approach, the book uses mathematical tools from probability, partial differential equations and asymptotic analysis, combined with the physics of wave propagation and modelling of imaging modalities. Suitable for applied mathematicians and geophysicists, it is also accessible to graduate students in applied mathematics, physics, and engineering.Remy Applied Geostatistics with SGeMSA User's Guidegeophysics, earth sciencesrThe Stanford Geostatistical Modeling Software (SGeMS) is an opensource computer package for solving problems involving spatially related variables. It provides geostatistics practitioners with a userfriendly interface, an interactive 3D visualization, and a wide selection of algorithms. This practical book provides a stepbystep guide to using SGeMS algorithms. It explains the underlying theory, demonstrates their implementation, discusses their potential limitations, and helps the user make an informed decision about the choice of one algorithm over another. Users can complete complex tasks using the embedded scripting language, and new algorithms can be developed and integrated through the SGeMS plugin mechanism. SGeMS was the first software to provide algorithms for multiplepoint statistics, and the book presents a discussion of the corresponding theory and applications. Incorporating the full SGeMS software (now available from www.cambridge.org/9781107403246), this book is a useful userguide for Earth Science graduates and researchers, as well as practitioners of environmental mining and petroleum engineering.KaratoDeformation of Earth Materials.An Introduction to the Rheology of Solid Earthvgeophysics, mineral physics, materials science, rheology, Earth deformation, geodynamics, thermodynamics, geochemistryThis graduate textbook presents a comprehensive, unified treatment of the materials science of deformation as applied to solid Earth geophysics and geology. The deformation of Earth materials is presented in a systematic way covering elastic, anelastic and viscous deformation. Advanced discussions on relevant debates are also included to bring readers a full picture of science in this interdisciplinary area. This textbook is ideal for graduate courses on the rheology and dynamics of solid Earth, and includes review questions with solutions so readers can monitor their understanding of the material presented. It is also a muchneeded reference for geoscientists in many fields including geology, geophysics, geochemistry, materials science, mineralogy and ceramics.BufornSolved Problems in GeophysicsSgeophysics, seismology, geomagnetism, geochronology, geodynamics, planetary physicsSolving problems is an indispensable exercise for mastering the theory underlying the various branches of geophysics. This book is a collection of nearly 200 problems in geophysics, which are solved in detail showing each step of their solution, the equations used and the assumptions made. Simple figures are also included to help students understand how to reduce a problem to its key elements. The book introduces the equations most commonly used in solving geophysical problems, and presents a series of exercises for the main, classical areas of geophysics gravity, geomagnetism, seismology, and heat flow and geochronology. Problems range from simple exercises for the most elementary courses to more complex problems suitable for graduatelevel students. This handy book is the ideal adjunct to core course textbooks on geophysical theory. It is a convenient source of additional homework and exam questions for instructors, and provides students with a practice or revision aid.Broughton Edge6The Principles and Practice of Geophysical ProspectingThe Earth is a dynamic system. Internal processes, together with external gravitational forces of the Sun, Moon and planets, displace the Earth's mass, impacting on its shape, rotation and gravitational field. Doug Smylie provides a rigorous overview of the dynamical behaviour of the solid Earth, explaining the theory and presenting methods for numerical implementation. Topics include advanced digital analysis, earthquake displacement fields, Free Core Nutations observed by the Very Long Baseline Interferometric technique, translational modes of the solid inner core observed by the superconducting gravimeters, and dynamics of the outer fluid core. This book is supported by freeware computer code, available online for students to implement the theory. Online materials also include a suite of graphics generated from the numerical analysis, combined with 100 graphic examples in the book to make this an ideal tool for researchers and graduate students in the fields of geodesy, seismology and solid earth geophysics. The book covers broadly applicable subjects such as the analysis of unequally spaced time series by Singular Value Decomposition, as well as specific topics on Earth Dynamics.OliverLInverse Theory for Petroleum Reservoir Characterization and History Matchingtpetroleum geophysics, petroleum engineering, groundwater hydrology, inverse theory, geostatistics, data assimilationThis book is a guide to the use of inverse theory for estimation and conditional simulation of flow and transport parameters in porous media. It describes the theory and practice of estimating properties of underground petroleum reservoirs from measurements of flow in wells, and it explains how to characterize the uncertainty in such estimates. Early chapters present the reader with the necessary background in inverse theory, probability and spatial statistics. The book demonstrates how to calculate sensitivity coefficients and the linearized relationship between models and production data. It also shows how to develop iterative methods for generating estimates and conditional realizations. The text is written for researchers and graduates in petroleum engineering and groundwater hydrology and can be used as a textbook for advanced courses on inverse theory in petroleum engineering. It includes many worked examples to demonstrate the methodologies and a selection of exercises.Nolet A Breviary of Seismic Tomography)Imaging the Interior of the Earth and SunLseismology, geodynamics, Earth structure, global geophysics, helioseismologyThis is the first textbook to cover the essential aspects of the topic at a level accessible to students. While focusing on applications in solid earth geophysics, the book also includes excursions into helioseismology, thereby highlighting the strong affinity between the two fields. The book provides a comprehensive introduction to seismic tomography, including the basic theory of wave pro< pagation, the ray and Born approximations required for interpretation of amplitudes, and travel times and phases. It considers observational features while also providing practical recommendations for implementing numerical models. Written by one of the leaders in the field, and containing numerous student exercises, this textbook is appropriate for advanced undergraduate and graduate courses. It is also an invaluable guide for seismology research practitioners in geophysics and astronomy. Solutions to the exercises and accompanying tomographic software and documentation can be accessed online from www.cambridge.org/9780521882446.ShapiroFluidInduced SeismicityDgeophysics, petroleum and mining geology, geomechanics, petrophysicsAThe characterisation of fluid transport properties of rocks is one of the most important, yet difficult, challenges of reservoir geophysics, but is essential for optimal development of hydrocarbon and geothermal reservoirs. This book provides a quantitative introduction to the underlying physics, application, interpretation, and hazard aspects of fluidinduced seismicity with a particular focus on its spatiotemporal dynamics. It presents many real data examples of microseismic monitoring of hydraulic fracturing at hydrocarbon fields and of stimulations of enhanced geothermal systems. The author also covers introductory aspects of linear elasticity and poroelasticity theory, as well as elements of seismic rock physics and mechanics of earthquakes, enabling readers to develop a comprehensive understanding of the field. FluidInduced Seismicity is a valuable reference for researchers and graduate students working in the fields of geophysics, geology, geomechanics and petrophysics, and a practical guide for petroleum geoscientists and engineers working in the energy industry.Gerya.Introduction to Numerical Geodynamic Modelling7geodynamics, numerical modelling, geophysics, tectonicsNumerical modelling of geodynamic processes was predominantly the domain of highlevel mathematicians experienced in numerical and computational techniques. Now, for the first time, students and new researchers in the Earth Sciences can learn the basic theory and applications from a single, accessible reference text. Assuming only minimal prerequisite mathematical training (simple linear algebra and derivatives) the author provides a solid grounding in basic mathematical theory and techniques, including continuum mechanics and partial differential equations, before introducing key numerical and modelling methods. 8 welldocumented, stateof theart viscoelastoplastic, 2D models are then presented, which allow robust modelling of key dynamic processes such as subduction, lithospheric extension, collision, slab breakoff, intrusion emplacement, mantle convection and planetary core formation. Incorporating 47 practical exercises and 67 MATLAB examples (for which codes are available online at www.cambridge.org/gerya), this textbook provides a userfriendly introduction for graduate courses or selfstudy, encouraging readers to experiment with geodynamic models.Hauck.Applied Geophysics in Periglacial EnvironmentsIgeophysics, cryospheric science, polar science, geomorphology, glaciologyMany research problems in cryospheric science, such as global warminginduced permafrost degradation, require information about the subsurface, which can be imaged using geophysical methods. This book is a practical guide to the application of geophysical techniques in mountainous and polar terrain, where the harsh environment and nature of the subsurface pose particular challenges. It starts with an introduction to the main geophysical methods and then demonstrates their application in periglacial environments through various case studies  written by a team of international experts. The final part of the book presents a series of reference tables with typical values of geophysical parameters for periglacial environments. This handbook is a valuable resource for glaciologists, geomorphologists and geologists requiring an introduction to geophysical techniques, as well as for geophysicists lacking experience of planning and conducting field surveys in cold regions.FowlerThe Solid Earth$An Introduction to Global Geophysics(geophysics, plate tectonics, geodynamicsThe Solid Earth is a general introduction to the study of the physics of the solid Earth, including the workings of both the Earth's surface and its deep interior. The emphasis throughout is on basic physical principles rather than instrumentation or data handling. The second edition of this acclaimed textbook has been revised to bring the content fully uptodate and to reflect the most recent advances in geophysical research. It is designed for undergraduates on introductory geophysics courses who have a general background in the physical sciences, including introductory calculus. It can also be used as a reference book for graduate students and other researchers in geology and geophysics. Each chapter ends with exercises of various degrees of complexity, for which solutions are available to instructors from www.cambridge.org/9780521893077. The book contains an extensive glossary of geological and physical terms, as well as appendices that develop more advanced mathematical topics.Jaupart*Heat Generation and Transport in the EarthKgeodynamics, thermodynamics, geophysics, tectonics, volcanology, glaciologyHeat provides the energy that drives almost all geological phenomena and sets the temperature at which these phenomena operate. This book explains the key physical principles of heat transport with simple physical arguments and scaling laws that allow quantitative evaluation of heat flux and cooling conditions in a variety of geological settings and systems. The thermal structure and evolution of magma reservoirs, the crust, the lithosphere and the mantle of the Earth are reviewed within the context of plate tectonics and mantle convection  illustrating how theoretical arguments can be combined with field and laboratory data to arrive at accurate interpretations of geological observations. Appendices contain data on the thermal properties of rocks, surface heat flux measurements and rates of radiogenic heat production. This book can be used for advanced courses in geophysics, geodynamics and magmatic processes, and is a reference for researchers in geoscience, environmental science, physics, engineering and fluid dynamics.KellerGeoinformatics0Cyberinfrastructure for the Solid Earth SciencesEarth science (general)1geology, geophysics, geocomputing, remote sensing=Advanced information technology infrastructure is increasingly being employed in the Earth sciences to provide researchers with efficient access to massive central databases and to integrate diversely formatted information from a variety of sources. These geoinformatics initiatives enable manipulation, modeling and visualization of data in a consisten< t way, and are helping to develop integrated Earth models at various scales, and from the near surface to the deep interior. This book uses a series of case studies to demonstrate computer and database use across the geosciences. Chapters are thematically grouped into sections that cover data collection and management; modeling and community computational codes; visualization and data representation; knowledge management and data integration; and web services and scientific workflows. Geoinformatics is a fascinating and accessible introduction to this emerging field for readers across the solid Earth sciences and an invaluable reference for researchers interested in initiating new cyberinfrastructure projects of their own. Borcherdt#Viscoelastic Waves in Layered Media]seismology, geophysics, solid mechanics, materials science, acoustics, mechanical engineeringThis book is a rigorous, selfcontained exposition of the mathematical theory for wave propagation in layered media with arbitrary amounts of intrinsic absorption. The theory, previously unpublished in book form, provides solutions for fundamental wavepropagation problems and corresponding numerical results in the context of any media with a linear response (elastic or anelastic). It provides new insights regarding the physical characteristics for two and threedimensional anelastic body and surface waves. The book is an excellent graduatelevel textbook. It permits fundamental elastic wave propagation to be taught in the broader context of wave propagation in any media with a linear response. The book is a valuable reference text. It provides tools for solving problems in seismology, geotechnical engineering, exploration geophysics, solid mechanics, and acoustics. The numerical examples and problem sets facilitate understanding by emphasizing important aspects of both the theory and the numerical results.Dvorkin&Seismic Reflections of Rock Properties+rock physics, seismology, petroleum geologyGThis book provides an accessible guide to using the rock physicsbased forward modeling approach for mapping the subsurface, systematically linking rock properties to seismic amplitude. Providing practical workflows, the book shows how to methodically vary lithology, porosity, rock type, and pore fluids and reservoir geometry, calculate the corresponding elastic properties, and then generate synthetic seismic traces. These synthetic traces can then be compared to actual seismic traces from the field: a similar actual seismic response implies similar rock properties in the subsurface. The book catalogs various cases, including clastic sediments, carbonates, timelapse seismic monitoring, and discusses the effect of attenuation on seismic reflections. It shows how to build earth models (pseudowells) using deterministic and statistical approaches, and includes case studies based on real well data. A vital guide for researchers and petroleum geologists, in industry and academia, providing sample catalogs of synthetic seismic reflections from a variety of realistic reservoir models.SimmSeismic AmplitudeAn Interpreter's HandbookNexploration seismology, rock physics, petroleum exploration, reservoir geology{Seismic amplitudes yield key information on lithology and fluid fill, enabling interpretation of reservoir quality and likelihood of hydrocarbon presence. The modern seismic interpreter must be able to deploy a range of sophisticated geophysical techniques, such as seismic inversion, AVO (amplitude variation with offset), and rock physics modelling, as well as integrating information from other geophysical techniques and well data. This accessible, authoritative book provides a complete framework for seismic amplitude interpretation and analysis in a practical manner that allows easy application  independent of any commercial software products. Deriving from the authors' extensive industry expertise and experience of delivering practical courses on the subject, it guides the interpreter through each step, introducing techniques with practical observations and helping to evaluate interpretation confidence. Seismic Amplitude is an invaluable daytoday tool for graduate students and industry professionals in geology, geophysics, petrophysics, reservoir engineering, and all subsurface disciplines making regular use of seismic data.Sen4Global Optimization Methods in Geophysical Inversiongeophysics, geosciencesProviding an uptodate overview of the most popular global optimization methods used in interpreting geophysical observations, this new edition includes a detailed description of the theoretical development underlying each method and a thorough explanation of the design, implementation and limitations of algorithms. New and expanded chapters provide details of recently developed methods, such as the neighborhood algorithm, particle swarm optimization, hybrid Monte Carlo and multichain MCMC methods. Other chapters include new examples of applications, from uncertainty in climate modeling to whole earth studies. Several different examples of geophysical inversion, including joint inversion of disparate geophysical datasets, are provided to help readers design algorithms for their own applications. This is an authoritative and valuable text for researchers and graduate students in geophysics, inverse theory and exploration geoscience, and an important resource for professionals working in engineering and petroleum exploration.StoltSeismic Imaging and Inversion$Application of Linear Inverse Theory,Engineering, petroleum and mining geoscience1seismology, petroleum exploration, inverse theoryExtracting information from seismic data requires knowledge of seismic wave propagation and reflection. The commonly used method involves solving linearly for a reflectivity at every point within the Earth, but this book follows an alternative approach which invokes inverse scattering theory. By developing the theory of seismic imaging from basic principles, the authors relate the different models of seismic propagation, reflection and imaging  thus providing links to reflectivitybased imaging on the one hand and to nonlinear seismic inversion on the other. The comprehensive and physically complete linear imaging foundation developed presents new results at the leading edge of seismic processing for target location and identification. This book serves as a fundamental guide to seismic imaging principles and algorithms and their foundation in inverse scattering theory and is a valuable resource for working geoscientists, scientific programmers and theoretical physicists.SearleMidOcean RidgesNplate tectonics, marine geology, geophysics, geodynamics, petrology, volcanism6The world's midocean ridges form a single, connected global ridge system that is part of every ocean, and is the longest mountain range in the world. Geologically active, midocean ridges are key sites of tectonic movement, intimately involved in seafloor spreading. This coursebook presents a multidisciplinary approach to the science of midocean ridges essential for a complete understanding of global tectonics and geodynamics. Designed for graduate and advanced undergraduate students, it will also provide a valuable reference for professionals in relevant fields. Background chapters provide a historical introduction and an overview of research techniques, with succeeding chapters covering the structur< e of the lithosphere and crust, and volcanic, tectonic and hydrothermal processes. A summary and synthesis chapter recaps essential points to consolidate new learning. Accessible to students and professionals working in marine geology, plate tectonics, geophysics, geodynamics, volcanism and oceanography, this is the ideal introduction to a key global phenomenon.EverettNearSurface Applied Geophysicsegeophysics, geoscience, environmental science, hydrology, civil engineering, geotechnical engineeringJust a few meters below the Earth's surface lie features of great importance, from geological faults which can produce devastating earthquakes, to lost archaeological treasures! This refreshing, uptodate book explores the foundations of interpretation theory and the latest developments in nearsurface techniques, used to complement traditional geophysical methods for deepexploration targets. Clear but rigorous, the book explains theory and practice in simple physical terms, supported by intermediatelevel mathematics. Techniques covered include magnetics, resistivity, seismic reflection and refraction, surface waves, induced polarization, selfpotential, electromagnetic induction, groundpenetrating radar, magnetic resonance, interferometry, seismoelectric and more. Sections on data analysis and inverse theory are provided and chapters are illustrated by case studies, giving students and professionals the tools to plan, conduct and analyze a nearsurface geophysical survey. This is an important textbook for advancedundergraduate and graduate students in geophysics and a valuable reference for practising geophysicists, geologists, hydrologists, archaeologists, and civil and geotechnical engineers.RevilThe SelfPotential Method4Theory and Applications in Environmental Geosciencesogeophysics, environmental science, hydrogeology, hydrology, environmental engineering, geotechnical engineeringCrustal Heat Flow: A Guide to Measurement and Modeling is a handbook for geologists and geophysicists who manipulate thermal data, particularly for petroleum exploration. In theory and with practical examples the book discusses the sources of heat within the crust, describes how to maximise the accuracy of temperature data, covers the measurement of the thermal properties of rocks, and explains a number of maturity indicators. The second part covers a range of thermodynamic models of the lithosphere and shows how these can be used to reconstruct the thermal history of individual sedimentary basins. This book will be regarded as a longterm reference source for professionals and researchers. It will also form the basis of advanced undergraduate and graduate student courses in geology, geophysics, engineering, mining, and environmental science, and will be a valuable text for petroleum industry training schemes.SchubertAMantle Convection in the Earth and Planets 2 Volume Paperback Set2 Paperback booksgeophysics, earth and planetary science, seismology, tectonophysics, geodesy, mineral physics, vulcanology, geochemistry, mineralogy, petrology, geology, palaeomagnetism, meteorites, planetary geologyMantle Convection in the Earth and Planets is a comprehensive synthesis of all aspects of mantle convection within the Earth, the terrestrial planets, the Moon, and the Galilean satellites of Jupiter. The book includes uptodate discussions of the latest research developments that have revolutionized our understanding of the Earth and the planets. It is suitable as a text for graduate courses in geophysics and planetary physics, and as a supplementary reference for use at the undergraduate level. It is also an invaluable review for researchers in the broad fields of the Earth and planetary sciences including seismologists, tectonophysicists, geodesists, mineral physicists, volcanologists, geochemists, geologists, mineralogists, petrologists, paleomagnetists, planetary geologists, and meteoriticists. The book features a comprehensive index, an extensive reference list, numerous illustrations (many in color) and major questions that focus the discussion and suggest avenues of future research.Dentith3Geophysics for the Mineral Exploration Geoscientist,geophysics, mineral exploration, ore geologyProviding a balance between principles and practice, this stateoftheart overview of geophysical methods takes readers from the basic physical phenomena, through the acquisition and processing of data, to the creation of geological models of the subsurface and data interpretation to find hidden mineral deposits. Detailed descriptions of all the commonly used geophysical methods are given, including gravity, magnetic, radiometric, electrical, electromagnetic and seismic methods. Each technique is described in a consistent way and without complex mathematics. Emphasising extraction of maximum geological information from geophysical data, the book also explains petrophysics, data modelling and common interpretation pitfalls. Packed with fullcolour figures, also available online, the text is supported by selected examples from around the world, including all the major deposit types. Designed for advanced undergraduate and graduate courses in minerals geoscience, this is also a valuable reference for professionals in the mining industry wishing to make greater use of geophysical methods. In 2015, Dentith and Mudge won the ASEG Lindsay Ingall Memorial Award for their combined effort in promoting geophysics to the wider community with the publication of this title.Chapman(Fundamentals of Seismic Wave Propagation+seismology, geophysics, applied mathematics0Fundamentals of Seismic Wave Propagation, published in 2004, presents a comprehensive introduction to the propagation of highfrequency bodywaves in elastodynamics. The theory of seismic wave propagation in acoustic, elastic and anisotropic media is developed to allow seismic waves to be modelled in complex, realistic threedimensional Earth models. This book provides a consistent and thorough development of modelling methods widely used in elastic wave propagation ranging from the whole Earth, through regional and crustal seismology, exploration seismics to borehole seismics, sonics and ultrasonics. Particular emphasis is placed on developing a consistent notation and approach throughout, which highlights similarities and allows more complicated methods and extensions to be developed without difficulty. This book is intended as a text for graduate courses in theoretical seismology, and as a reference for all academic and industrial seismologists using numerical modelling methods. Exercises and suggestions for further reading are included in each chapter.SimpsonPractical Magnetotellurics'magnetotellurics, geophysics, tectonicsThe magnetotelluric (MT) method, a technique for probing the electrical conductivity structure of the Earth, is increasingly used both in applied geophysics and in basic research. This book, first published in 2005, goes into detail on practical aspects of applying the MT technique. Beginning with the basic principles of electromagnetic induction in the Earth, this introduction to magnetotellurics aims to guide students and researchers in geophysics and other areas of earth science through the practical aspects of the MT method: from planning a field campaign, through data processing and modelling, to tectonic and geodynamic interpretation. The book will be of use to graduatelevel students and researchers who are embarking on a research project involving MT; to lecturers preparing courses on MT; and to geoscientists involved in multidisciplinary research projects who wish to incorporate MT results in their interpretations.ChaveThe Magnetotelluric MethodTheory and PracticeGsolid earth geophysics, geophysical exploration, tectonics, geodynamicsGThe magnetotelluric method is a technique for imaging the electrical conductivity and structure of the Earth, from the near surface down to the 410 km transition zone and beyond. This book forms the first comprehensive overview of magnetotellurics from the salient physics and its mathematical representation, to practic< al implementation in the field, data processing, modeling and geological interpretation. Electromagnetic induction in 1D, 2D and 3D media is explored, building from first principles, and with thorough coverage of the practical techniques of time series processing, distortion, numerical modeling and inversion. The fundamental principles are illustrated with a series of case histories describing geological applications. Technical issues, instrumentation and field practices are described for both land and marine surveys. This book provides a rigorous introduction to magnetotellurics for academic researchers and advanced students and will be of interest to industrial practitioners and geoscientists wanting to incorporate rock conductivity into their interpretations.Kovach!Early Earthquakes of the Americasbarchaeoseismology, palaeoseismology, seismology, earthquakes, archaeology, history of the AmericasThis book was first published in 2004. There is emerging interest amongst researchers from various subject areas in understanding the interplay of earthquake and volcanic occurrences, archaeology and history. This discipline has become known as archeoseismology. Ancient earthquakes often leave their mark in the myths, legends, and literary accounts of ancient peoples, the stratigraphy of their historical sites, and the structural integrity of their constructions. Such information leads to a better understanding of the irregularities in the timespace patterns of earthquake and volcanic occurrences and whether they could have been a factor contributing to some of the enigmatic catastrophes in ancient times. This book focuses on the historical earthquakes of North and South America, and describes the effects those earthquakes have had with illustrated examples of recent structural damage at archaeological sites. It is written at a level that will appeal to students and researchers in the fields of earth science, archaeology, and history.Brown<Centennial History of the Carnegie Institution of Washington/geology, history of American science, astronomyIn 1902, Andrew Carnegie founded the Carnegie Institution of Washington, to support innovative science research. Since its creation two years later, the Department of Terrestrial Magnetism has undertaken a broad range of research from terrestrial magnetism, ionospheric physics and geochemistry to biophysics, radio astronomy and planetary science. This second volume in a series of five histories of the Carnegie Institution describes the people and events, the challenges and successes that the Department has witnessed over the last century. Contemporary photographs illustrate some of the remarkable expeditions and instruments developed in pursuit of scientific understanding, from sailing ships to nuclear particle accelerators and radio telescopes to mass spectrometers. These photographs show an evolution of scientific progress through the century, often done under trying, even exciting circumstances.YoderKgeology, history of American science, petrology, geochemistry, astrobiologyFor over a century, the Geophysical Laboratory of the Carnegie Institution of Washington has witnessed exciting discoveries and ingenious research, made possible by the scientific freedom granted to members of the department. For the most part, this research has involved laboratory experimentation on the physics and chemistry of rockforming minerals at high temperature and pressure. This third volume in a series of five histories of the Carnegie Institution documents the contribution made by the members of the Geophysical Laboratory to our understanding of the Earth, from mineral formation deep below the surface, to the search for the origins of life, and out into space to study the chemical evolution of the interstellar medium. Field work has taken researchers from active volcanoes to ships collecting ocean sediments, and geological mapping expeditions around the world. Contemporary photographs throughout illustrate the evolution of the department and its research. Guidoboni$Earthquakes and Tsunamis in the Past.A Guide to Techniques in Historical SeismologyJearthquake geophysics, seismology, archaeology, history, civil engineeringOThis handbook defines the discipline of historical seismology by detailing the latest research methodologies for studying historical earthquakes and tsunamis. It describes the various sources that reference seismic phenomena, discusses the critical problems of interpreting such sources, and presents a summary of the theories proposed throughout history to explain the causes of earthquakes. Incorporating examples from a broad geographic region (including Europe, North Africa, the Middle East, central Asia, and the Americas), the text presents numerous interpretations and misinterpretations of historical earthquakes and tsunamis in order to illustrate the key techniques. The authors also tie historical seismology research to archaeological investigations, and demonstrate how new scientific databases and catalogues can be compiled from information derived from the methodologies described. This is an important new reference for scientists, engineers, historians and archaeologists, providing a valuable foundation for understanding the Earth's seismic past and potential future seismic hazard. ArtemievaThe LithosphereAn Interdisciplinary Approach8tectonophysics, geodynamics, geophysics, Earth structurePresenting a coherent synthesis of lithosphere studies, this book covers a range of geophysical methods (seismic reflection, refraction, and receiver function methods; elastic and anelastic seismic tomography; electromagnetic and magnetotelluric methods; thermal, gravity and rheological models), complemented by petrologic and laboratory data on rock properties. It also provides a critical discussion of the uncertainties, assumptions, and resolution issues that are inherent in the different methods and models of the lithosphere. Multidisciplinary in scope, global in geographical extent, and covering a wide variety of tectonics settings across 3.5 billion years of Earth history, this book presents a comprehensive overview of lithospheric structure and evolution. It is a core reference for researchers and advanced students in geophysics, geodynamics, tectonics, petrology, and geochemistry, and for petroleum and mining industry professionals.AndersonNew Theory of the EarthWsolid Earth geophysics, geodynamics, Earth history, geochemistry, mineralogy, volcanismBTheory of the Earth is an interdisciplinary advanced textbook on the origin, composition, and evolution of the Earth's interior: geophysics, geochemistry, dynamics, convection, mineralogy, volcanism, energetics and thermal history. This is the only book on the whole landscape of deep Earth processes which ties together all the strands of the subdisciplines. It is a complete update of Anderson's Theory of the Earth (1989). It includes many new sections and dozens of new figures and tables. As with the original book, this new edition will prove to be a stimulating textbook on advanced courses in geophysics, geochemistry, and planetary science, and supplementary textbook on a wide range of other advanced Earth science courses. It will also be an essential reference and resource for all researchers in the solid Earth sciences.MavkoThe Rock Physics Handbook*Tools for Seismic Analysis of Porous Media_rock physics, geophysics, seismology, geomechanics, petroleum geoscience, petroleum engineering/The Rock Physics Handbook addresses the relationships between geophysical observations and the underlying physical properties of rocks. It distills a vast quantity of background theory and laboratory results into a series of concise chapters that provide practical solutions to problems in geophysical data interpretation. This expanded second edition presents major new chapters on statistical rock physics and velocityporosityclay models for clastic sediments. Other new and expanded topics include anisotropic seismic signatures, borehole waves, models for fractured media, poroelastic models, and attenuation models. This new editio< n also provides an enhanced set of appendices with key empirical results, data tables, and an atlas of reservoir rock properties  extended to include carbonates, clays, gas hydrates, and heavy oils. Supported by a website hosting MATLAB routines for implementing the various rock physics formulas, this book is a vital resource for advanced students and university faculty, as well as petroleum industry geophysicists and engineers.Geophysical Continua#Deformation in the Earth's Interior,geophysics, geodynamics, continuum mechanicsGeophysical Continua presents a systematic treatment of deformation in the Earth from seismic to geologic time scales, and demonstrates the linkages between different aspects of the Earth's interior that are often treated separately. A unified treatment of solids and fluids is developed to include thermodynamics and electrodynamics, in order to cover the full range of tools needed to understand the interior of the globe. The emphasis throughout the book is on relating seismological observations with interpretations of earth processes. Physical principles and mathematical descriptions are developed that can be applied to a broad spectrum of geodynamic problems. Incorporating illustrative examples and an introduction to modern computational techniques, this textbook is designed for graduatelevel courses in geophysics and geodynamics. It is also a useful reference for practising Earth Scientists.IsmailZadeh%Computational Methods for GeodynamicsYgeodynamics, geophysics, computational geoscience, planetary science, applied mathematics=Written as both a textbook and a handy reference, this text deliberately avoids complex mathematics assuming only basic familiarity with geodynamic theory and calculus. Here, the authors have brought together the key numerical techniques for geodynamic modeling, demonstrations of how to solve problems including lithospheric deformation, mantle convection and the geodynamo. Building from a discussion of the fundamental principles of mathematical and numerical modeling, the text moves into critical examinations of each of the different techniques before concluding with a detailed analysis of specific geodynamic applications. Key differences between methods and their respective limitations are also discussed  showing readers when and how to apply a particular method in order to produce the most accurate results. This is an essential text for advanced courses on numerical and computational modeling in geodynamics and geophysics, and an invaluable resource for researchers looking to master cuttingedge techniques. Links to supplementary computer codes are available online.Hinze Gravity and Magnetic Exploration'Principles, Practices, and Applicationsgeophysics, applied geophysics]This combination of textbook and reference manual provides a comprehensive account of gravity and magnetic methods for exploring the subsurface using surface, marine, airborne and satellite measurements. It describes key current topics and techniques, physical properties of rocks and other earth materials, and digital data analysis methods used to process and interpret anomalies for subsurface information. Each chapter starts with an overview and concludes by listing key concepts to consolidate new learning. An accompanying website presents problem sets and interactive computerbased exercises, providing handson experience of processing, modeling and interpreting data. A comprehensive online suite of fullcolor case histories illustrates the practical utility of modern gravity and magnetic surveys. This is an ideal text for advanced undergraduate and graduate courses and reference text for research academics and professional geophysicists. It is a valuable resource for all those interested in petroleum, engineering, mineral, environmental, geological and archeological exploration of the lithosphere.0Earthquakes in the Mediterranean and Middle East2A Multidisciplinary Study of Seismicity up to 1900,archaeology, earth science, earth geophysics5This book examines historical evidence from the last 2000 years to analyse earthquakes in the eastern Mediterranean and Middle East. Early chapters review techniques of historical seismology, while the main body of the book comprises a catalogue of more than 4000 earthquakes identified from historical sources. Each event is supported by textual evidence extracted from primary sources and translated into English. Covering southern Rumania, Greece, Turkey, Lebanon, Israel, Egypt, Jordan, Syria, and Iraq, the book documents past seismic events, places them in a broad tectonic framework, and provides essential information for those attempting to prepare for, and mitigate the effects of, future earthquakes and tsunamis in these countries. This volume is an indispensable reference for researchers studying the seismic history of the eastern Mediterranean and Middle East, including archaeologists, historians, earth scientists, engineers and earthquake hazard analysts. A parametric catalogue of these seismic events can be downloaded from www.cambridge.org/9780521872928.StaceyPhysics of the EarthFgeophysics, Earth structure, geodynamics, tectonics, planetary scienceThe fourth edition of Physics of the Earth maintains the original philosophy of this classic graduate textbook on fundamental solid earth geophysics, while being completely revised, updated, and restructured into a more modular format to make individual topics even more accessible. Building on the success of previous editions, which have served generations of students and researchers for nearly forty years, this new edition will be an invaluable resource for graduate students looking for the necessary physical and mathematical foundations to embark on their own research careers in geophysics. Several completely new chapters have been added and a series of appendices, presenting fundamental data and advanced mathematical concepts, and an extensive reference list, are provided as tools to aid readers wishing to pursue topics beyond the level of the book. Over 140 student exercises of varying levels of difficulty are also included, and full solutions are available online at www.cambridge.org/9780521873628.SmylieEarth Dynamics3Deformations and Oscillations of the Rotating Earth1geodesy, geophysics, geodynamics, fluid mechanicsThis unique textbook provides the foundation for understanding and applying techniques commonly used in geophysics to process and interpret modern digital data. The geophysicist's toolkit contains a range of techniques which may be divided into two main groups: processing, which concerns time series analysis and is used to separate the signal of interest from background noise; and inversion, which involves generating some map or physical model from the data. These two groups of techniques are normally taught separately, but are here presented together as parts I and II of the book. Part III describes some real applications and includes case studies in seismology, geomagnetism, and gravity. This textbook gives students and practitioners the theoretical background and practical experience, through case studies, computer examples and exercises, to understand and apply new processing methods to modern geophysical datasets. Solutions to the exercises are available on a website at http://publishing.cambridge.org/resources/0521819652Campbell"Introduction to Geomagnetic Fields&geomagnetism, geophysics, astrophysicsIntroduction to Geomagnetic Fields is a textbook for advanced undergraduate and graduate students of geophysics. It explains the natural magnetic fields in and surrounding the Earth that arise from a variety of electric currents. The author clearly presents these different components of the Earth's magnetic field with a minimum of mathematical complexity. Readers are also introduced to the techniques and instrumentation for measuring geomagnetic fields, and to the range of applications for which these measurements are used. This second edition has been fully revised. It has been designed as a textbook for use with semester courses in geomagnetism and includes stude< nt exercises at the end of each chapter. Special appendices review relevant mathematical techniques and direct the reader to various journals, books, organizations, and websites where computer programs for geomagnetism may be downloaded.Newman)Continuum Mechanics in the Earth Sciencesjsolid earth geophysics, tectonics, structural geology, geodynamics, planetary science, applied mathematics]Continuum mechanics underlies many geological and geophysical phenomena, from earthquakes and faults to the fluid dynamics of the Earth. This interdisciplinary book provides geoscientists, physicists and applied mathematicians with a classtested, accessible overview of continuum mechanics. Starting from thermodynamic principles and geometrical insights, the book surveys solid, fluid and gas dynamics. In later review chapters, it explores new aspects of the field emerging from nonlinearity and dynamical complexity and provides a brief introduction to computational modeling. Simple, yet rigorous, derivations are used to review the essential mathematics. The author emphasizes the full threedimensional geometries of realworld examples, enabling students to apply this in deconstructing solid earth and planetrelated problems. Problem sets and worked examples are provided, making this a practical resource for graduate students in geophysics, planetary physics and geology and a beneficial tool for professional scientists seeking a better understanding of the mathematics and physics within Earth sciences.,Fractals and Chaos in Geology and Geophysics5earth science, geology, geophysics, nonlinear science The fundamental concepts of fractal geometry and chaotic dynamics, along with the related concepts of multifractals, selfsimilar time series, wavelets, and selforganised criticality, are introduced in this book, for a broad range of readers interested in complex natural phenomena. Now in a greatly expanded second edition, this book relates fractals and chaos to a variety of geological and geophysical applications. These include drainage networks and erosion, floods, earthquakes, mineral and petroleum resources, fragmentation, mantle convection and magnetic field generation. Many advances have been made in the field since the first edition was published. In this edition coverage of selforganised criticality is expanded and statistics and time series are included to provide a broad background for the reader. All concepts are introduced at the lowest possible level of mathematics consistent with their understanding, so that the reader requires only a background in basic physics and mathematics. Problems are included for the reader to solve.Sharma(Environmental and Engineering GeophysicsUgeophysics, environmental science, civil and mining engineering, geology, archaeologyXGeophysical imaging methods provide solutions to a wide range of environmental and engineering problems: protection of soil and groundwater from contamination; disposal of chemical and nuclear waste; geotechnical site testing; landslide and ground subsidence hazard detection; location of archaeological artefacts. This book comprehensively describes the theory, data acquisition and interpretation of all of the principal techniques of geophysical surveying: gravity, magnetic, seismic, selfpotential, resistivity, induced polarization, electromagnetic, groundprobing radar, radioactivity, geothermal, and geophysical borehole logging. A final chapter is devoted to inversion theory and tomography. Each chapter is supported by a large number of richly illustrated case histories. This book will prove to be a valuable coursebook for advanced undergraduates and postgraduates in environmental and applied geophysics, a supplementary coursebook for students of geology, engineering geophysics, civil and mining engineering, and a reference work for professional earth scientists, engineers and town planners.
Dynamic Earth$Plates, Plumes and Mantle ConvectionRsolidearth geophysics, geochemistry, structural geology, tectonics, geochronologyDynamic Earth presents the principles of convection in the earth's mantle in an accessible style. Mantle convection is the process underlying plate tectonics, volcanic hotspots and, hence, most geological processes. The book summarises key observations and presents the relevant physics starting from basic principles. The main concepts and arguments are presented with minimal mathematics, although more mathematical versions of important aspects are included for those who desire them. The book also surveys geochemical constraints and mantle evolution. The audience for Geoff Davies' book will be the broad range of geologists who desire a better understanding of the earth's internal dynamics, as well as graduate students and researchers working on the many aspects of mantle dynamics and its implications for geological processes. It is also suitable as a text or supplementary text for upper undergraduate and postgraduate courses in geophysics, geochemistry, and tectonics.Voo9Paleomagnetism of the Atlantic, Tethys and Iapetus Oceans#geology, paleomagnetism, geophysicsSThis book explains the use and techniques of paleomagnetism to map the movement of major portions of the Earth's surface through time. Written for a geological audience, the initial chapters provide the basic essentials for understanding the value and significance of paleomagnetic results. The later chapters are unique in bringing together the vast amounts of available paleomagnetic data and analyses. This information is integrated with the paleogeography and tectonic movements of the blocks and placed in context with current tectonic hypotheses. A considerable proportion of the present continents are considered that is the land areas that are now found around the Atlantic and Indian Oceans and in Asia. Also presented is an extensive catalogue of paleomagnetic results for all major continents and the displaced elements that they contain.Walt1Introduction to Geomagnetically Trapped Radiation.Cambridge Atmospheric and Space Science Series#Atmospheric science and meteorologygeology, atmospheric physicsThis book is an introductory textbook on the physical processes occurring in the Earth's radiation belts. The presentation is at the advanced undergraduate or first year graduate level, and it is appropriate for students who intend to work in some aspect of magnetospheric physics. The treatment is quantitative and provides the mathematical basis for original work in this subject. The equations describing the motion of energetic ions and electrons in the geomagnetic field are derived from basic principles, and concepts such as magnetic field representations, guiding centre motion, adiabatic invariance, and particle distribution functions are presented in a detailed and accessible manner. Relevant experimental techniques are reviewed and a summary is given of the intensity and energy spectra of the particle populations in the Earth's radiation belts. Problem sets are included as well as appendices of tables, graphs and frequently used formulas.UdasPrinciples of Seismologyseismology and geophysics2This book, first published in 2000, is an introductory text on seismology intended for upper division undergraduates and graduate students. It emphasise< s fundamental concepts and basic mathematical developments, and is intended to be 'student friendly'. The author explains the fundamental concepts in full detail with stepbystep development of the mathematics, although the book does assume a knowledge of vector and tensor analysis, calculus and ordinary and partial differential equations, as well as of fundamental physics, especially mechanics and elasticity theory. Simple examples, such as onedimensional problems and liquid media are used as introductory topics. The book covers most of the fundamental topics in seismology, including seismic wave propagation, normal mode theory, ray theory approximation, body and surface waves, source mechanisms, kinematic and dynamic models and applications to the understanding of the structure of the Earth and seismotectonics. The book also contains appendices on useful mathematical tools and includes extensive problems.HarrisLinear Elastic Waves*Cambridge Texts in Applied Mathematics, 267wave theory, applied mathematics, mechanics, geophysicsWave propagation and scattering are among the most fundamental processes that we use to comprehend the world around us. While these processes are often very complex, one way to begin to understand them is to study wave propagation in the linear approximation. This is a book describing such propagation using, as a context, the equations of elasticity. Two unifying themes are used. The first is that an understanding of plane wave interactions is fundamental to understanding more complex wave interactions. The second is that waves are best understood in an asymptotic approximation where they are free of the complications of their excitation and are governed primarily by their propagation environments. The topics covered include reflection, refraction, the propagation of interfacial waves, integral representations, radiation and diffraction, and propagation in closed and open waveguides. Linear Elastic Waves is an advanced level textbook directed at applied mathematicians, seismologists, and engineers.Scholz)The Mechanics of Earthquakes and FaultingAgeophysics, rock mechanics, seismology, geodesy, tectonic geologyOur understanding of earthquakes and faulting processes has developed significantly since publication of the successful first edition of this book in 1990. This revised edition, first published in 2002, was therefore thoroughly updated whilst maintaining and developing the two major themes of the first edition. The first of these themes is the connection between fault and earthquake mechanics, including fault scaling laws, the nature of fault populations, and how these result from the processes of fault growth and interaction. The second major theme is the central role of the ratestate friction laws in earthquake mechanics, which provide a unifying framework within which a wide range of faulting phenomena can be interpreted. With the inclusion of two chapters explaining brittle fracture and rock friction from first principles, this book is written at a level which will appeal to graduate students and research scientists in the fields of seismology, physics, geology, geodesy and rock mechanics.Poirier3Introduction to the Physics of the Earth's Interioraearth sciences, geophysics, mineral physics, highpressure condensed matter physics, geochemistryIntroduction to the Physics of the Earth's Interior describes the structure, composition and temperature of the deep Earth in one comprehensive volume. The book begins with a succinct review of the fundamentals of continuum mechanics and thermodynamics of solids, and presents the theory of lattice vibration in solids. It introduces the various equations of state, moving on to a discussion of melting laws and transport properties. The book closes with a discussion of current seismological, thermal and compositional models of the Earth. The new edition of this successful textbook has been enlarged and fully updated, taking into account the considerable experimental and theoretical progress recently made in understanding the inner structure of the Earth. Like the first edition, this will be a useful textbook for graduate and advanced undergraduate students in geophysics and mineralogy. It will also be of great value to researchers in earth sciences, physics and materials sciences.LambeckThe Earth's Variable Rotation#Geophysical Causes and Consequencesgeophysics, astronomy, geodesyMAstronomers have long noted that the Earth does not rotate uniformly about an axis fixed in the planet, that both the lengthofday and the direction of the rotation axis vary periodically and irregularly by small amounts. These variations are an immediate consequence of the Earth not being a rigid body. In this book Professor Lambeck discusses the irregular nature of this motion and the geophysical mechanisms responsible for it. A complete analysis of these causes requires a discussion of solid Earth physics, magnetohydrodynamics, oceanography and meteorology. The study of the Earth's rotation is therefore of interest not only to astronomers who wish to explain their observations, but also to many geophysicists who use the astronomers' observations to understand better the Earth's response to a variety of applied forces. The author emphasizes the important contributions made over the last 15 years, this progress being in part a consequence of the overall progress in geophysics and planetary physics and of the developments in space science and technology, which not only require that the Earth's motion be precisely known but which also have provided new and precise methods for monitoring this motion. This book is suitable for geophysicists, astronomers and geodesists who are actively engaged in research as well as for graduate students.Fundamentals of Geophysics^solid earth geophysics, applied geophysics, planetary geophysics, plate tectonics, geodynamics%This second edition of Fundamentals of Geophysics has been completely revised and updated, and is the ideal geophysics textbook for undergraduate students of geoscience with an introductory level of knowledge in physics and mathematics. It gives a comprehensive treatment of the fundamental principles of each major branch of geophysics, and presents geophysics within the wider context of plate tectonics, geodynamics and planetary science. Basic principles are explained with the aid of numerous figures and stepbystep mathematical treatments, and important geophysical results are illustrated with examples from the scientific literature. Textboxes are used for auxiliary explanations and to handle topics of interest for more advanced students. This new edition also includes review questions at the end of each chapter to help assess the reader's understanding of the topics covered and quantitative exercises for more thorough evaluation. Solutions to the exercises and electronic copies of the figures are available at www.cambridge.org/9780521859028.ShearerIntroduction to SeismologyRseismology, geophysics, earthquakes, geodynamics, tectonics, petroleum exploration(This book provides an approachable and concise introduction to seismic theory, designed as a first course for undergraduate students. It clearly explains the fundamental concepts, emphasizing intuitive understanding over lengthy derivations. Incorporating over 30% new material, this second edition includes all the topics needed for a onesemester course in seismology. Additional material has been added throughout including numerical methods, 3D ray tracing, earthquake location, attenuation, normal modes, and receiver functions. The chapter on earthquakes and source theory has been extensively revised and enlarged, and now includes details on nondoublecouple sources, earthquake scaling, radiated energy, and finite slip inversions. Each chapter includes worked problems and detailed exercises that give students the opportunity to apply the techniques they have learned to compute results of interest and to illustrate the Earth's seismic properties. Computer subroutines and datasets for use in the exercises are available at www.cambridge.org/shearer.< Bacon3D Seismic InterpretationCseismology, geophysics, petroleum geoscience, petroleum engineering3D seismic data have become the key tool used in the petroleum industry to understand the subsurface. In addition to providing excellent structural images, the dense sampling of a 3D survey makes it possible to map reservoir quality and the distribution of oil and gas. Topics covered in this book include basic structural interpretation and mapmaking; the use of 3D visualisation methods; interpretation of seismic amplitudes, including their relation to rock and fluid properties; and the generation and use of AVO and acoustic impedance datasets. This new paperback edition includes an extra appendix presenting new material on novel acquisition design, pore pressure prediction from seismic velocity, elastic impedance inversion, and time lapse seismics. Written by professional geophysicists with many years' experience in the oil industry, the book is indispensable for geoscientists using 3D seismic data, including graduate students and new entrants into the petroleum industry.JacksonThe Earth's Mantle%Composition, Structure, and Evolutiongeophysics, geochemistry?The Earth's mantle plays a crucial role in a variety of geologic processes and provides researchers with important insights into the development of our planet. Interdisciplinary in scope, The Earth's Mantle is a comprehensive overview of the composition, structure and evolution of the mantle layer. Striking a balance between established consensus and continuing controversy, the book provides researchers and graduate students with an authoritative review of this important part of our planet. Written by internationally recognized scientists from the Research School of Earth Sciences at the Australian National University, it draws on perspectives from cosmochemistry, isotope geochemistry, fluid dynamics and petrology, seismology and geodynamics, and mineral and rock physics. The hardback edition received excellent reviews.MussettLooking into the Earth(An Introduction to Geological Geophysics"geophysics, geology, earth scienceLooking Into the Earth comprehensively describes the principles and applications of both 'global' and 'exploration' geophysics on all scales. It forms an introduction to geophysics suitable for those who do not necessarily intend to become professional geophysicists, including geologists, civil engineers, environmental scientists, and field archaeologists. The book is organised into two parts: Part 1 describes the geophysical methods, while Part 2 illustrates their use in a number of extended case histories. Mathematical and physical principles are introduced at an elementary level, and then developed as necessary. Student questions and exercises are included at the end of each chapter. The book is aimed primarily at introductory and intermediate university students taking courses in geology, earth science, environmental science, and engineering. It will also form an excellent introductory textbook in geophysics departments, and will help practising geologists, archaeologists and engineers understand what geophysics can offer their work.
BeardsmoreCrustal Heat Flow$A Guide to Measurement and Modelling;geophysics, geochemistry, basin analysis, petroleum geologyMantle convection is the fundamental agent driving many of the geological features observed at the Earth's surface, including plate tectonics and plume volcanism. Yet many Earth scientists have an incomplete understanding of the process. This book describes the physics and fluid dynamics of mantle convection, explaining what it is, how it works, and how to quantify it in simple terms. It assumes no specialist background: mechanisms are explained simply and the required basic physics is fully reviewed and explained with minimal mathematics. The distinctive forms that convection takes in the Earth's mantle are described within the context of tectonic plates and mantle plumes, and implications are explored for geochemistry and tectonic evolution. Common misconceptions and controversies are addressed  providing a straightforward but rigorous explanation of this key process for students and researchers across a variety of geoscience disciplines.ZhouPractical Seismic Data Analysis.seismology, exploration geoscience, geophysicsThis modern introduction to seismic data processing in both exploration and global geophysics demonstrates practical applications through real data and tutorial examples. The underlying physics and mathematics of the various seismic analysis methods are presented, giving students an appreciation of their limitations and potential for creating models of the subsurface. Designed for a onesemester course, this textbook discusses key techniques within the context of the world's ever increasing need for petroleum and mineral resources  equipping upper undergraduate and graduate students with the tools they need for a career in industry. Examples presented throughout the text allow students to compare different methods and can be demonstrated using the instructor's software of choice. Exercises at the end of sections enable students to check their understanding and put the theory into practice and are complemented by solutions for instructors and additional case study examples online to complete the learning package.Bullen+An Introduction to the Theory of Seismologygeophysics, geology, seismologyThis radical revision of Professor Bullen's acclaimed and widely used text provides an introduction to modern seismological theory, with emphasis on both the physical models and the mathematical descriptions of earthquakes and their sources. The essential core of the earlier editions has been retained, particularly the tensor treatment of elasticity, seismic wave traveltime analysis and density in the Earth, although these parts of the text have been brought up to date and expanded. The new part of the book reflects on how the study of earthquakes, seismic waves and seismic risk has been broadened in the past two decades. Thus, this edition includes introductory theory of earthquake sources, seismic wave travel through complex geological zones and viscous and anisotropic media, vibrations of the whole Earth, strongmotion seismology and earthquake prediction and risk. There is an emphasis on statistical and numerical procedures and problems of resolution in inverse theory. Modern class exercises are to be found throughout. The book assumes some background in classical physics and mathematics, including simple differential equations, linear algebra and probability theory. It will be suitable for use in undergraduate courses in geophysics, applied mechanics and geotechnology and for graduate courses in seismology and earthquake engineering. In addition, it will serve as a reference text on seismological problems for professionals concerned with earthquakes, Earth structure and wave motion.Le Grand)Drifting Continents and Shifting Theories'geology, history, philosophy of scienceThis innovative book uses the story of how a modern science achieved its present shape and focus to examine the nature of scientific change and its philosophical and social analysis. The 'modern revolution in geology' of the 1960s and 1970s saw the triumph of the global theory of plate tectonics; a decisive turning point in fifty years' controversy and competition, first sparked in 1912 by Wegener's proposal of continental drift. Here, Professor Le Grand interweaves a history of this episode of scientific change with reflective discussions of its historical, philosophical and social circumstances, and of the development of science more generally. The approach of the book is exploratory rather than dogmatic. The reader is encouraged to be an active participant  to use the historical narrative to understand and criticize some of the more recent, influential ideas about science and scientists; to draw conclusions and especially to pose questions about how and why changes occur in scientific knowledge and practice. The book may be read as an introduction to and history of central concept< s of modern geology; as a social and intellectual account of a major revolution in science; and as an incisive commentary on and constructive criticism of several interpretations of the nature of science and the process of scientific change. Its structure, content and approach make it accessible to general readers, yet at the same time of interest to professionals and students of geology and of the history, philosophy and sociology of science.Hudson/The Excitation and Propagation of Elastic Waves:fluid dynamics and solid mechanics, solid earth geophysicsVThis paperback edition of Dr Hudson's advanced textbook presents the theory of small disturbances propagating through solids. The material is set out carefully in mathematical detail. The linearised theory of elasticity has now been replaced by a more fundamental approach based on a generalised theory of continuum mechanics. Despite this change of emphasis in solid mechanics there remain important areas of physics in which the linear theory is clearly of fundamental importance, especially in seismology, noise analysis and the nondestructive testing of materials. This is a textbook suitable for advanced undergraduates in a variety of disciplines, including applied mathematics, applied physics, geophysics and structural and civil engineering. The book is of particular interest to seismologists and physicists engaged in nondestructive testing.TelfordApplied Geophysics2geophysics, petroleum geology, exploration geologyThis is the completely revised and updated version of the popular and highly regarded textbook, Applied Geophysics. It describes the physical methods involved in exploration for hydrocarbons and minerals, which include gravity, magnetic, seismic, electrical, electromagnetic, radioactivity, and welllogging methods. All aspects of these methods are described, including basic theory, field equipment, techniques of data acquisition, data processing and interpretation, with the objective of locating commercial deposits of minerals, oil, and gas and determining their extent. In the fourteen years or so since the first edition of Applied Geophysics, many changes have taken place in this field, mainly as the result of new techniques, better instrumentation, and increased use of computers in the field and in the interpretation of data. The authors describe these changes in considerable detail, including improved methods of solving the inverse problem, specialized seismic methods, magnetotellurics as a practical exploration method, timedomain electromagnetic methods, increased use of gammaray spectrometers, and improved welllogging methods and interpretation.GubbinsSeismology and Plate Tectonics@seismology, plate tectonics, geophysics, geology, physics, maths This textbook is unique in giving an introduction to seismological theory and the principles of plate tectonics, as well as developing a practical approach to the reading and interpretation of seismograms. The book forms the basis for an introductory course to physicists, mathematicians and geologists. The early chapters give a general background in geophysics and elasticity theory, and present the standard results for the propagation of seismic waves radiated from large earthquakes. The main part of the text describes how seismograms are read and interpreted, explaining how the readings are used to locate the source of the waves, determine the sense of motion across the fault and to work out details of plate movements. Examples are included in which the reader has the opportunity to interpret seismic records and use them to find locations of earthquakes and determine their source mechanisms. The final chapter discusses plate tectonic theory, and gives the mathematical foundation behind the description of plate movement in terms of vectors.
Howell, Jr)An Introduction to Seismological ResearchHistory and DevelopmentModern seismology is a relatively new science; most current ideas originated no earlier than the latter half of the nineteenth century. The focus of this book is on seismological concepts, how they originated and how they form our modern understanding of the science. A history of seismology falls naturally into four periods: a largely mythological period previous to the 1755 Lisbon earthquake; a period of direct observation from then to the development of seismometers in the late 19th century; a period during which study of seismic arrival times were used to outline the structure of the earth's interior extending to the 1960s; the modern era in which all aspects of seismic waves are used in combination with trial models and computers to elucidate details of the earthquake process. This history attempts to show how modern ideas grew from simple beginnings. Ideas are rarely new, and their first presentations are often neglected until someone is able to present the evidence for their correctness convincingly. Much care has been used to give the earliest sources of ideas and to reference the basic papers on all aspects of earthquake seismology to help investigators find such references in tracing the roots of their own work.Blakely5Potential Theory in Gravity and Magnetic Applicationsapplied geophysics@This text bridges the gap between the classic texts on potential theory and modern books on applied geophysics. It opens with an introduction to potential theory, emphasising those aspects particularly important to earth scientists, such as Laplace's equation, Newtonian potential, magnetic and electrostatic fields, and conduction of heat. The theory is then applied to the interpretation of gravity and magnetic anomalies, drawing on examples from modern geophysical literature. Topics explored include regional and global fields, forward modeling, inverse methods, depthtosource estimation, ideal bodies, analytical continuation, and spectral analysis. The book includes numerous exercises and a variety of computer subroutines written in FORTRAN. Graduate students and researchers in geophysics will find this book essential.BlundellA Continent Revealed9The European Geotraverse, Structure and Dynamic Evolutionearth science geologylA Continent Revealed presents the findings of the European Geotraverse (EGT),  a unique study of the tectonic evolution of the continent of Europe, and the first comprehensive cross section of the continental lithosphere. A wellillustrated book and a set of maps and profiles have been put together by key workers in the EGT project to present the great wealth of information yielded by the project. The book outlines the scientific achievements of the European Geotraverse. It tells how the information now available is key evidence in the piecing together of the tectonic evolution of the European continent. The authors have reviewed the work of their colleagues to unravel the nature, evolution and dynamics of the European lithosphere. The stimulating study reveals much of the workings of the earth and the processes that shaped the continent of Europe as we see it today. The maps and profiles, along a 250 kilometre wide swath stretching 4600 kilometres from Scandinavia to the Mediterranean, form a three dimensional picture of the structure, properties and composition of the continental lithosphere of Europe in an atlas format. Many of the data are also presented on an accompanying compact disk. The book completes the boxed set, and is also available on its own in paperback. The EGT project has filled many gaps in our knowledge of the lithosphere, and is a celebration of coordination and communication across geographical borders and between disciplines. This book tells the story of international collaboration on an unprecedented scale, by several hundred geoscientists in a series of welldefined international projects. Middleton1Mechanics in the Earth and Environmental Sciencesgeology, geophysics, seismologyTThe study of the Earth and the environment requires an understanding of the physical processes within and at the surface of the Earth. This book allows the student to develop a broad working knowledge of mechanics and its application to the earth and environ< mental sciences  providing the background necessary to study the professional literature. The mathematical background required is a firstyear course in calculus  more advanced topics are introduced in the context of their applications. The book aims to develop an understanding of the physics for each topic in mechanics, to provide insight into a wide range of natural phenomena. The breadth of application, and the many worked examples and problems will lead both students and professionals to a better understanding of the physical systems at work in the Earth's crust and at its surface.Jacobs'Reversals of the Earth's Magnetic Fieldgeophysics, geomagnetismBy measuring the direction and intensity of magnetism in rocks of different ages, a record of the Earth's magnetic field in the past can be obtained. This 1994 book deals with the particular case of reversals of the Earth's magnetic field. These have played a major role in the development of plate tectonics and in establishing a geological time scale. The magnetism of rocks is discussed in some detail with a warning of possible misinterpretations of the record. Observational results and theories are reviewed with special attention to the structure and geometry of the transition field. Changing conditions at the coremantle boundary, their effect on reversals, the generation of plumes and the possible correlation of reversals with tectonic changes, ice ages or mass extinctions are thoroughly discussed, including suggested periodicities in the reversal record and in other geophysical data.SheriffExploration Seismology8geology, scismology, geophysics, geophysical explorationThis is the completely updated revision of the highly regarded book Exploration Seismology. Available now in one volume, this textbook provides a complete and systematic discussion of exploration seismology. The first part of the book looks at the history of exploration seismology and the theory  developed from the first principles of physics. All aspects of seismic acquisition are then described. The second part of the book goes on to discuss dataprocessing and interpretation. Applications of seismic exploration to groundwater, environmental and reservoir geophysics are also included. The book is designed to give a comprehensive uptodate picture of the applications of seismology. Exploration Seismology's comprehensiveness makes it suitable as a text for undergraduate courses for geologists, geophysicists and engineers, as well as a guide and reference work for practising professionals.Rogers%An Introduction to Our Dynamic PlanetNsolid Earth, plate tectonics, geodynamics, geophysics, geochemistry, petrologyThis is the first undergraduate textbook to fully integrate results from geophysics, geochemistry, and petrology to describe the structure, composition, and dynamic processes that operate throughout the solid Earth. It presents an Earth system science approach to studies of the Earth's interior and develops a global view of solid Earth cycles to explain geodynamic and plate tectonic processes. This book initially explores the formation and evolution of the early Earth, then considers the operative forces for plate tectonic movements at the Earth's surface, and finally discusses global cycles within the deep Earth and their effect on the surface environment. Interactions between the geosphere, hydrosphere, and atmosphere, and their influence at and beneath the Earth's surface are examined in detail. This textbook thus provides a concise yet extensive coverage of the solid Earth. Written for intermediate undergraduates, it includes a wealth of features to support student learning at this level.Vasco!Subsurface Fluid Flow and ImagingFWith Applications for Hydrology, Reservoir Engineering, and GeophysicsTpetroleum engineering, petroleum geophysics, hydrogeology, hydrology, inverse theoryZThis book introduces methodologies for subsurface imaging based upon asymptotic and trajectorybased methods for modeling fluid flow, transport and deformation. It describes trajectorybased imaging from its mathematical formulation, through the construction and solution of the imaging equations, to the assessment of the accuracy and resolution associated with the image. Unique in its approach, it provides a unified framework for the complete spectrum of physical phenomena from wavelike hyperbolic problems to diffusive parabolic problems and nonlinear problems of mixed character. The practical aspects of imaging, particularly efficient and robust methods for updating high resolution geologic models using fluid flow, transport and geophysical data, are emphasized throughout the book. Complete with online software applications and examples that enable readers to gain handson experience, this volume is an invaluable resource for graduatelevel courses, as well as for academic researchers and industry practitioners in the fields of geoscience, hydrology, and petroleum and environmental engineering.FossenStructural Geology%structural geology, petroleum geologyQLavishly illustrated in color, this textbook takes an applied approach to introduce undergraduate students to the basic principles of structural geology. The book provides unique links to industry applications in the upper crust, including petroleum and groundwater geology, which highlight the importance of structural geology in exploration and exploitation of petroleum and water resources. Topics range from faults and fractures forming near the surface to shear zones and folds of the deep crust. Students are engaged through examples and parallels drawn from practical everyday situations, enabling them to connect theory with practice. Containing numerous endofchapter problems, elearning modules, and with stunning field photos and illustrations, this book provides the ultimate learning experience for all students of structural geology.Pujol5Elastic Wave Propagation and Generation in Seismology9seismology, earthquake geophysics, exploration geophysics,Seismology has complementary observational and theoretical components, and a thorough understanding of the observations requires a sound theoretical background. This book bridges the gap between introductory textbooks and advanced monographs by providing the necessary mathematical tools and demonstrating how to apply them. Each seismological problem is carefully formulated and its solution is derived in a stepbystep approach. The text includes student exercises (with hints), for which solutions are available on a dedicated website. This website also contains numerous downloadable programs for the computation of reflection and transmission coefficients, for the generation of P and S wave radiation patterns and synthetic seismograms, in infinite media. This book will therefore find a receptive audience among advanced undergraduate and graduate students interested in developing a solid mathematical background to tackle more advanced topics in seismology. It will also form a useful reference volume for researchers wishing to brush up on the fundamentals.9Time Series Analysis and Inverse Theory for Geophysicists\geophysics, seismology, geomagnetism, electromagnetism, gravity studies, resistivity studiesISBN 13AuthorTitleEditionCoverPub DatePub Year Pub Price Subject 2
ReadershipSubtitleSubject DescriptionPages Pub MonthReissue FlagSeriesDunlopRock MagnetismFundamentals and Frontiers!Cambridge Studies in Magnetism, 3No PaperbackEarth and environmental scienceSolid earth geophysics'earth sciences (geology and geophysics)/Rock Magnetism, first published in 1997, is a comprehensive treatment of fine particle magnetism and the magnetic properties of rocks. Starting from atomic magnetism and magnetostatic principles, the authors explain why domains and micromagnetic structures form in ferromagnetic crystals and how these lead to magnetic memory in the form of thermal, chemical and other remanent magnetizations. The phenomenal stability of these magnetizations, providing a record of plate tectonic motions over millions of years, is ex< plained by thermal activation theory. One chapter is devoted to practical tests of domain state and paleomagnetic stability; another deals with pseudosingledomain magnetism. The final four chapters place magnetism in the context of igneous, sedimentary, metamorphic, and extraterrestrial rocks. This book will be of great value to graduate students and researchers in geophysics and geology, particularly in paleomagnetism and rock magnetism, as well as physicists and electrical engineers interested in fineparticle magnetism and magnetic recording.Watts'Isostasy and Flexure of the Lithosphere7geophysics, geodesy, tectonics, geology, basin analysisThis unique book presents an overview of isostasy, a simple concept of fundamental importance to the Earth Sciences that students have traditionally found difficult to grasp. With this in mind, the author has used a simplified mathematical treatment, numerous geological examples and an extensive bibliography, to make the subject more accessible and easytounderstand. Beginning by tracing the ideas behind local and regional models of isostasy and arguing that only flexure is in accord with geological observations, the book proceeds to describe the theoretical background, the observational evidence and the constraints that flexure has provided on physical properties of the lithosphere. The book concludes with a discussion of flexure's role in understanding the evolution of the surface features of the Earth and its neighboring planets. Ideal for graduate students of geophysics, geodesy and geoscience, it will also be of interest to researchers in gravity and geodesy, tectonics and basin analysis.KennettThe Seismic Wavefield>seismology, geophysics, petroleum geology, applied mathematicsQThe Seismic Wavefield provides a guide to the understanding of seismograms in terms of physical propagation processes within the Earth. The focus is on the observation of earthquakes and manmade sources on all scales, for both body waves and surface waves. Volume I begins with a survey of the structure of the Earth and the nature of seismic wave propagation using examples of observed seismograms. The second part provides a full development of the theoretical background for seismic waves. Volume II covers local and regional seismic events, global wave propagation, and the threedimensional Earth. The combination of observation and theoretical development with a strong visual focus will greatly appeal to graduate students in seismology. The book will also be valuable to researchers and professionals in academia and the petroleum industry.The two volumes which make up The Seismic Wavefield provide a comprehensive guide to the understanding of seismograms in terms of physical propagation processes within the Earth. The focus is on the observation of earthquakes and manmade sources on all scales, for both body waves and surface waves. Volume I provided a general introduction and a development of the theoretical background for seismic waves. This material is exploited in Volume II to look at the way in which observed seismograms relate to the propagation processes. Volume II discusses local and regional seismic events, global wave propagation, and the threedimensional Earth. The combination of observation and theoretical development with a strong visual focus will greatly appeal to graduate students in seismology. The two volumes will also be valuable to researchers and professionals in academia and the petroleum industry.Condie/Mantle Plumes and their Record in Earth History
geophysicsThis 2001 book provides a comprehensive review of the origin and history of mantle plumes throughout geologic time. The book describes the exciting results of the last few years, and integrates an immense amount of material from the fields of geology, geophysics, and geochemistry that bear on mantle plumes. Included are chapters on hotspots and mantle upwelling, large igneous provinces (including examples from Mars and Venus), mantle plume generation and melting in plumes, plumes as tracers of mantle processes, plumes and continental growth, Archean mantle plumes, superplumes, mantle plume events in Earth history, and their effect on the atmosphere, oceans, and life. This book will be valuable as a textbook for advanced undergraduate and graduate courses in geophysics, geochemistry, and geology, and will also form a reference text for researchers in the Earth sciences from a variety of disciplines.BackusFoundations of GeomagnetismYesgeophysics, physicsThe main magnetic field of the Earth is a complex phenomenon. To understand its origins in the fluid of the Earth's core, and how it changes in time requires a variety of mathematical and physical tools. This book presents the foundations of geomagnetism, in detail and developed from first principles. The book is based on George Backus' courses for graduate students at the University of California, San Diego. The material is mathematically rigorous, but is logically developed and has consistent notation, making it accessible to a broad range of readers. The book starts with an overview of the phenomena of interest in geomagnetism, and then goes on to deal with the phenomena in detail, building the necessary techniques in a thorough and consistent manner. Students and researchers will find this book to be an invaluable resource in the appreciation of the mathematical and physical foundations of geomagnetism.CervenySeismic Ray TheoryMseismology, geophysics, petroleum science, earth science, applied mathematicsSeismic Ray Theory presents a comprehensive treatment of the seismic ray method. This method plays an important role in seismology, seismic exploration, and in the interpretation of seismic measurements. Many concepts which extend the possibilities and increase the efficiency of the seismic ray method are included. The book has a tutorial character: derivations start with a relatively simple problem, in which the main ideas are easier to explain, and then advance to more complex problems. Most of the derived equations in the book are expressed in algorithmic form and may be used directly for computer programming. This book will prove to be an invaluable advanced textbook and reference volume in all academic institutions in which seismology is taught or researched. It will also be an invaluable resource in the research and exploration departments of the petroleum industry and in geological surveys. Ambraseys/The Seismicity of Egypt, Arabia and the Red SeaA Historical Reviewseismology, geophysicsA careful and intensive study of historical sources and a review of the instrumental data of this century have led to this detailed catalogue of earthquakes. Egypt, Arabia, the Red Sea region and the surrounding areas of Libya, Sudan and Ethiopia are studied from the earliest times to the present day. Each earthquake is described as fully as possible from the available data, and is analysed in a geographical and historical context. The completeness of the earthquake catalogue over time is analysed and the range of sources and problems associated with the scrutiny of historical sources is discussed. The information is then placed in a geophysical framework. A History of Persian EarthquakesCambridge Earth Science SeriesModern plate tectonic theory, the development of earthquake prediction and the mitigation of earthquake hazards are based on the study of earthquakes during the twentieth century. Investigation of earthquakes over a much longer period, although in no way invalidating the global importance of plate tectonics, shows that patterns of seismic activity do change with time and that areas of intense seismic activity in the historical past are often gaps of earthquake activity today. This study of the historical seismicity of Iran over the last thirteen centuries not only shows this quite clearly but also reveals a longterm tectonic pattern which is different from that deduced from shortterm observations. The historical data provides the basis for the development of earthquake prediction models and for longterm earthquake hazard assessment. T< his book will be of equal interest to earth scientists, seismologists, historical geographers and orientalists.Havner0Finite Plastic Deformation of Crystalline Solids!Cambridge Monographs on MechanicsMathematics"Mathematical modelling and methods&applied mathematics, material sciencesThis book reviews and interrelates a large number of theoretical and experimental contributions to the research on finite plastic deformation of single crystals and polycrystalline metals. An overall theoretical framework for investigation of large strains in crystalline materials is presented that enables the blending of contemporary and earlier experimental research with modern concepts in solid mechanics. Professor Havner has provided a historical perspective throughout, including accurate attribution of ideas and emphasis on pioneering studies, beginning with G. I. Taylor and the German researchers in the 1920s. Early chapters deal with single crystals, including extensive analyses of particular experimental configurations. Then connections between single crystals and polycrystalline material behaviour are considered. Necessary background to the most general theoretical sections is presented in an appendix and approximately 200 references to the primary scientific literature are included. Engineering scientists, applied mathematicians and physical metallurgists will find this volume an invaluable guide to the development of finite plastic deformation theory.
Stephenson(Historical Eclipses and Earth's Rotation Astronomy"History of astronomy and cosmologyEclassical astronomy, geophysics, history of science, oriental studiesThis book is intended for geophysicists, astronomers (especially those with an interest in history), historians and orientalists. The culmination of many years of research, it discusses, in depth, ancient and medieval eclipse observations and their importance in studying Earth's past rotation. This was the first major book on this subject to appear in the last twenty years. The author has specialised in the interpretation of early astronomical records and their application to problems in modern astronomy for many years. The book contains an indepth discussion of numerous eclipse records from Babylon, China, Europe and the Arab lands. Translations of almost every record studied are given. It is shown that although tides play a dominant longterm role in producing variations in Earth's rate of rotation  causing a gradual increase in the length of the day  there are significant, and variable nontidal changes in opposition to the main trend.Jeffreys The EarthIts Origin, History and Physical Constitutionsolid earth geophysics8This is a digital reprint of the revised 1976 edition of this classic work. It examines seismology, gravity, the strength of the shell, the variation of latitude and the figure of the Moon. The chapter on tidal friction is largely rewritten and what now seem to be the three most reliable estimates of the true secular acceleration of the Moon agree in suggesting that the provisional estimate in the last edition should be considerably increased. The criticism of theories of continental drift, convection and plate tectonics is much expanded. A new appendix pinpoints directions for future geophysical research. The Earth continues to provide a fundamental and comprehensive account of geophysical problems, essential to all scientists concerned with problems of the origin, history and physical constitution of the Earth.Sposito2Scale Dependence and Scale Invariance in Hydrology+Hydrology, hydrogeology and water resources hydrologyQWhether processes in the natural world are dependent or independent of the scale at which they operate is one of the major issues in hydrologic science. In this volume, leading hydrologists present their views on the role of scale effects in hydrologic phenomena occurring in a range of field settings, from the land surface to deep fractured rock. Selfcontained and thoughtprovoking chapters cover both theoretical and applied hydrology. They provide critical insights into important topics such as general circulation models, floods, river networks, vadosezone processes, groundwater transport, and fluid flow through fractured media. This book is intended as an accessible introduction for graduate students and researchers to some of the most significant questions and challenges that will face hydrologic science in the twentyfirst century.MunkThe Rotation of the EarthA Geophysical Discussion"Fluid dynamics and solid mechanicszThis book gives an account of certain observed irregularities on the rotation of the Earth, both in its rate of rotation (giving a variable length of day) and in the position of its axis. These irregularities are caused by events on and within the Earth and provide a means of studying a number of geophysical problems. Seasonal shifts in air masses and variable winds are causes of shortperiod fluctuations in the rotation. Climatic changes and their attendant sea levels are in part responsible for longterm fluctuations. Modern observations of the Moon and descriptions of ancient elipses both establish a secular increase in the length of day. The interpretation involves atmospheric, oceanic and bodily tides. The book provides a unified treatment of the rotation of the Earth, making this method of studying geophysical phenomena more readily accessible to geophysicists and others.DavidsonOrigin of Earthquakesstructural geology, tectonics and geodynamicsWritten in 1912 by the Cambridge scholar and mathematician Charles Davison, The Origin of Earthquakes offers an overview of what Davison described as 'the varied phenomena of earthquakes'. Using case studies from around the world, Davison considers the origin of several different classes of earthquakes, including simple, twin and complex. Further attention is devoted to the growth of faults, foreshocks and aftershocks, sympathetic earthquakes, earthquake sounds and distribution, with supplementary illustrations and maps. Offering contemporary assessments of events ranging from the MinoOwari earthquake of 1891 to the Californian earthquake of 1906, this volume will appeal to anyone interested in the history and development of seismology in the early part of the twentieth century.FrohlichDeep EarthquakesJearthquake seismology, geophysics, geodynamics, tectonics, earth structureDeep earthquakes (earthquakes with origins deeper than 60 km) are of scientific importance and account for approximately onequarter of all earthquakes. They are occasionally very large and damaging yet provide much of the data that constrain our knowledge of Earth structure and dynamics. This book opens with an explanation of what deep earthquakes are, their significance to science and how they were first discovered. Later chapters provide a description of deep earthquake distribution and clustering in both time and space; a review of observations about source properties; and a discussion of theories for the origin of deep earthquakes. The book concludes with a comprehensive literature review of terrestrial and lunar deep seismicity. Deep Earthquakes presents a comprehensive, topical, historical, and geographical summary of deep earthquakes and related phenomena. It will be of considerable interest to researchers and graduate students in the fields of earthquake seismology and deep Earth structure.Davison A History of British Earthquakes4solid earth geophysics, history of Britain (general)First published in 1924, this classic volume details the history of British earthquakes from the year 974 to the beginning of the twentieth century. Building on material laid out in his 1912 volume The Origin of British Earthquakes, Charles Davison based his method of investigation on the theory that eart< hquakes were the results of successive steps in the growth of faults. Using a modification of the wellknown Rossi Forel scale, and with reference to the latest scientific studies of his time, he compiled a catalogue of all known British earthquakes. Davison was at pains to include only those earthquakes that were undoubtedly British, omitting many disturbances which had been doubtfully placed in other British lists of his time. His aim was to trace the zones in which crustchanges occurred and where the faults were still live, and to uncover some of the laws that govern the growth of faults. Additionally, Davison included a chapter describing 'ExtraBritish' earthquakes, examining disturbances felt in Britain that originated in Ireland, the Channel Islands, Norway, and as far away as Lisbon. His concluding chapters address the sound phenomena, distribution, and origin of different types of earthquakes.Avseth#Quantitative Seismic Interpretation9Applying Rock Physics Tools to Reduce Interpretation RiskDrock physics, seismology, geophysical exploration, petroleum geology.Quantitative Seismic Interpretation demonstrates how rock physics can be applied to predict reservoir parameters, such as lithologies and pore fluids, from seismically derived attributes. The authors provide an integrated methodology and practical tools for quantitative interpretation, uncertainty assessment, and characterization of subsurface reservoirs using welllog and seismic data. They illustrate the advantages of these new methodologies, while providing advice about limitations of the methods and traditional pitfalls. This book is aimed at graduate students, academics and industry professionals working in the areas of petroleum geoscience and exploration seismology. It will also interest environmental geophysicists seeking a quantitative subsurface characterization from shallow seismic data. The book includes problem sets and a casestudy, for which seismic and welllog data, and Matlab codes are provided on a website (http://www.cambridge.org/9780521816014). These resources will allow readers to gain a handson understanding of the methodologies.Maher/Quaternary Climates, Environments and Magnetismpenvironmental science, Quaternary geology, palaeoclimatology, geophysics, sedimentology, stratigraphy, geographyThe Quaternary has been a period of major climatic and environmental oscillations, and our knowledge of these past variations is important for our understanding of the possible impact of human activity on the presentday environment. First published in 1999, Quaternary Climates, Environments and Magnetism presents an account of the rich variety of uses of magnetic measurements in the environmental geosciences. Ten chapters by leading world authorities describe the highlights of environmental magnetic work during the last decade and identify directions for future research. Emphasis is placed on a multidisciplinary approach to achieve a more thorough understanding of the environmental processes involved. This volume will be of interest to research scientists from a wide range of disciplines working on Quaternary environments, including earth and environmental sciences, physical geology, geography and palaeoclimatology. It will also be valuable as a supplementary text for graduates and advanced undergraduates.SchusterSeismic InterferometryOexploration seismology, geophysics, petroleum geoscience, petroleum engineeringSeismic interferometry is an exciting field in geophysics utilising multiple scattering events to provide unprecedented views of the Earth's subsurface. This is a comprehensive book describing the theory and practice of seismic interferometry with an emphasis on applications in exploration seismology. Exercises are provided at the end of each chapter, and the text is supplemented by online MATLAB codes that illustrate important ideas and allow readers to generate synthetic traces and invert these to determine the Earth's reflectivity structure. Later chapters reinforce these principles by deriving the rigorous mathematics of seismic interferometry. Incorporating examples that apply interferometric imaging to synthetic and field data, from applied geophysics and earthquake seismology, this book is a valuable reference for academic researchers and oil industry professionals. It can also be used to teach a onesemester course for advanced students in geophysics and petroleum engineering.Lowrie*A Student's Guide to Geophysical Equations^solid earth geophysics, geodynamics, seismology, geomagnetism, gravity studies, thermodynamicsThe advent of accessible student computing packages has meant that geophysics students can now easily manipulate datasets and gain firsthand modeling experience  essential in developing an intuitive understanding of the physics of the Earth. Yet to gain a more indepth understanding of physical theory, and to develop new models and solutions, it is necessary to be able to derive the relevant equations from first principles. This compact, handy book fills a gap left by most modern geophysics textbooks, which generally do not have space to derive all of the important formulae, showing the intermediate steps. This guide presents full derivations for the classical equations of gravitation, gravity, tides, earth rotation, heat, geomagnetism and foundational seismology, illustrated with simple schematic diagrams. It supports students through the successive steps and explains the logical sequence of a derivation  facilitating selfstudy and helping students to tackle homework exercises and prepare for exams.TurcotteGeodynamicsStructural geology, tectonics and geodynamics;geodynamics, plate tectonics, geophysics, planetary scienceEssential reading for any Earth scientist, this classic textbook has been providing advanced undergraduate and graduate students with the fundamentals needed to develop a quantitative understanding of the physical processes of the solid earth for over thirty years. This third edition has two completely new chapters covering numerical modelling and geophysical MATLAB applications, and the text is now supported by a suite of online MATLAB codes that will enable students to grasp the practical aspects of computational modelling. The book has been brought fully up to date with the inclusion of new material on planetary geophysics and other cutting edge topics. Exercises within the text allow students to put the theory into practice as they progress through each chapter and carefully selected further reading sections guide and encourage them to delve deeper into topics of interest. Answers to problems available within the book and also online, for selftesting, complete the textbook package.LangelThe Magnetic Field of the Earth's LithosphereThe Satellite Perspective geomagnetism, geology, tectonicstMany geological features of the Earth's lithosphere create variations in the Earth's magnetic field that can be detected by satellites. The resulting magnetic anomaly maps can provide insights into the tectonic features and broad structures of the lithosphere. This book, which was originally published in 1998, documents the acquisition, reduction and analysis of satellite magnetic fie<ld data in the study of the Earth's lithosphere. The text considers issues of interpreting data, summarises various interpretation methods, considers rock magnetism concepts and sources of variation in magnetism, and provides a summary of published maps and the various methods used to create them. Mapping and interpreting lithospheric fields from satellite magnetic data has resulted in the subdiscipline of geomagnetism. Advanced students and researchers will find this book to be of interest.YeatsActive Faults of the WorldHardbackgplate tectonics, structural geology, earthquake seismology, geotechnical engineering, civil engineeringProviding the first worldwide survey of active earthquake faults, this book focuses on those described as 'seismic time bombs' with the potential to destroy large cities in the developing world such as Port au Prince, Kabul, Tehran and Caracas. Leading international earthquake expert, Robert Yeats, explores both the regional and platetectonic context of active faults, providing the background for seismic hazard evaluation in planning largescale projects such as nuclear power plants or hydroelectric dams. He also highlights work done in more advanced seismogenic countries like Japan, the United States, New Zealand and China, providing an important basis for upgrading building standards and other laws in developing nations. The book also explores the impact of major quakes on social development through history. It will form an accessible reference for analysts and consulting firms, and a convenient overview for academics and students of geoscience, geotechnical engineering and civil engineering, and landuse planning.Davies Mantle Convection for Geologists3geodynamics, plate tectonics, geophysics, petrologyw9>GU[
gJq`;v?ICl*S.nsRWqXG3"?
"H+24#'>INRFW`cjhse{.s
2>BN
YA//U
9
J$T/72ccV~,}A}
809]* ef809]* "}A}
809]* ef809]* "}A}
809]* ef809]* "}A}
809]* ef809]* "}A}
809]* ef809]* "}A}
809]* ef 809]* "}A}
809]* L809]* "}A}
809]* L809]* "}A}
809]* L809]* "}A}
809]* L809]* "}A}
809]* L809]* "}A}
809]* L 809]* "}A}
809]* 23809]* "}A}
809]* 23809]* "}A}
809]* 23809]* "}A}
809]* 23809]* "}A}
809]* 23809]* "}A}!
809]* 23 809]* "}A}"
809]* 809]* "}A}#
809]* 809]* "}A}$
809]* 809]* "}A}%
809]* 809]* "}A}&
809]* 809]* "}A}'
809]* 809]* "}}(
??v809]* ̙809]* "z_B_""? B_;
}})
???809]* 809]* "???z_B_???""? ???B_;
???}A}*
a809]* 809]* "}A}
}809]* 809]* "}}.
809]* 809]* "???z_B_???""? ???B_;
???}A}/
809]* 809]* "}A}0
809]* ?809]* "}A}1
809]* 23809]* "}}2
809]* }A}3
e809]* 809]* "}}6
}809]* 809]* "z_B_""? B_;
}U}8
809]* 809]* "z_B_}}9
809]* }}:
809]* }};
809]* }x}<809]* 809z_ "
B_}A}?
809]* 809O20% akcent 1ef%O"20% akcent 2ef%O&20% akcent 3ef%O*20% akcent 4ef%O.20% akcent 5ef%O220% akcent 6 ef%O40% akcent 1L%O#40% akcent 2L渷%O'40% akcent 3L%O+40% akcent 4L%O/40% akcent 5L%O340% akcent 6 Lմ%O 60% akcent 123%O$60% akcent 223ږ%O(60% akcent 323כ%O,60% akcent 423%O060% akcent 523%O460% akcent 6 23%CAkcent 1O%C!Akcent 2PM%C%Akcent 3Y%C)Akcent 4d%CAkcent 5K%C1Akcent 6 F%Dane wej[ciowe̙??v% Dane wyj[ciowe???%????????? ???=Dobrya%*
Dziesitny2Dziesitny [0]WKomrka poBczona}%Komrka zaznaczona%????????? ???I
NagBwek 1I}%OI
NagBwek 2I}%?I
NagBwek 3I}%23;
NagBwek 4I}%E Neutralnye%&Normalny
Obliczenia}% *
ProcentowyKSuma%OOI5Tekst obja[nienia%ITekst ostrzeenia%1TytuBI}%d
Uwaga &Walutowy.Walutowy [0]9ZBy%XTableStyleMedium2PivotStyleLight16B
$xϕ
dMbP?_*+%&?'?(?)?MHP Deskjet Ink Advant K209az(C 4d,,A4DINU"<LXSMTJIUPH3/KCj}(!XXQKbe C:\WINDOWS\splwow64.exeL xoUR)]j)([`B/*JA"Qc>
_s&F!qMD!3sf=Kh9Os;3sgg?sg(CZ:eSN992;qN˨6bI^V?q'*9:9K[D9qMF/GlJNG68$'SDiEQ.1)#ʩ'8t9T〲We6~xb鱣Qub$w1pRV:*")INi/D՟k6.?`84̟NH1o?NE1%G.M?Qu$ש%qv;gr2i/~5?VxD<غ`>Ϗt%MSTeTٵ%\BŃxutRr2.ǓfÕW)o;oic<.G[fM[1F73EtK[qڡ2{(GY>:}Dtg]2StN2e7%ާ]OӑSNELkiYrüF<=N60M{oߜ(`#ٿq+TYæn3ƭ'FGh8*Bbu$aTQ eT$P@18Ru4'8!\O:a'8AqE NPp'8AqAT
wh
'8!QTQ@NrYT:a"!WEMߧL3Z<~w2>!rd\A:22qeIi;e\#cke\'zAn6{73^뭟s{7?fj3ET _@$ϕK(zP
e7*"1'/%T p̰[m~
>ѱ~sYcXUK~C9yC}rhSͅs_E,u8~~
8~vtѳ h\IS2~.K%Kx%[}vaXfI3<4lZT)͋Y4/8'_fk/ִ#Yӻ 쮻iV0y
_pؾ~Qm_b_)~Xb_1iQL,mzL{Эҏ
f
r_
l"g;{M=@pG97>~5_/S6,+q6TRJA0lc_/ΰa4__lD~ 3bXnP~__j_lg_JAuF/\ߵ1r7V%^r@xsJcH)%/~1.v%ߡ{ߥ*J~߬Q*Љ" d,,??U}
C}
A}$A}IA}D}L}A}$ L}
L}B}
E}E}N}I
Subject Subject 2Titleg@T
U&UUUUUUUUUUUUUUUU
Op
Pq
@r
@z
@
@s
S
Pt
Qu
Q~
Qv
Rw
S{
Sx
Sy
S
S}JphʡB
G
G
GG~
I?
K
GKM@K@K`@H{@
F
F
F
F~
M@JxiʡB
G
G
GG~
I?
K
GK@`@K@K4@H^@
F
F
F
F~
M@JiʡB
G
GG
G~
I?
K
GK@K(@KT@H{@
F
F
F
F~
Mh@JiʡB
Gg
Gh
GiG~
I?
K
GK@@K@Kl@H@
F
Fj
Fk
Fl~
M@x@JLѮʡB
G
G
GG~
I?
K
GK @K@Kp@H^@
F
Fj
F
F~
M@JyѮʡB
G~
G
GG~
I?
K
GK@K@Kp@H@
F
F
F
F~
M z@JlhʡB
G
G
GG~
I?
K
GKh@K$@K`@H>@
F
F
F
F~
M{@ Jt'iʡB
G
G
GG~
I?
K
G K@@K$@K8@H@
F
F
F
F~
M`{@
JrKҮʡB
G
G!
GG~
I?
K
G
K@K@K@HT@
F
F"
F#
F$~
M~@JhiʡB
G
G
GG~
I?K
GK9@K$@K\@H{@
F
F
F
F~
M@m@JiʡB
GM
GN
GOG~
I?
K
GKd@K"@K`@H{@
F
F
FP
FQ~
Mv@
J
hʡB
G
G
GG~
I?
K
G
K@K@Kd@H>@
F
F
F
F~
M@{@JhchʡB
G
GG
G~
I?
K
GK@@K&@KT@Ho@
F
FF
F~
Mn@J8ThʡB
G
G
GG~
I?
K
GK @K@Kl@H@
F
F
F
F~
Mr@J,3ѮʡB
G
G
GG~
I?
K
GK @K@Kl@H{@
F
F
F
F~
Mr@JѮʡB
G
G
GG~
I?
K
GK`)@K?Kt@H@
F
F
F
F~
M`f@JiʡB
G]
G^
GG~
I?
K
GKH@K@K`@H@
F
F
F_
F`~
Mx@JiʡB
G]
G^
GG~
I?K
GKH@K@K`@H@
F
F
F_
F`~
Mx@J}iʡB
GD
GE
GFG~
I?
K
GK B@K@K@H@
F
F
F
FG~
Mi@JU
iʡB
GD
GE
GFG~
I?
K
GK`@K@KT@HV@
F
F
F
FG~
Mi@JhbhʡB
G0
G1
GG~
I@
K
GK@@K&@K@
H(\Q@
F
F
F2
F3~
M@@JiʡB
G<
G=
GG~
I@
K
GK B@K@K@
H(\Q@
F
F
F>
F?~
M@JiʡB
GZ
G[
GG~
I?
K
GK`e@K$@K`@H@
F
F
F\
F]~
Mp@JjݮʡB
GZ
G[
GG~
I?
K
GK@@K @Kp@HV@
F
F
F\
F]~
Mp@JSݮʡB
G8
G9
G:G~
I?
K
GK@K@Kl@HV@
F
F
F;
F<~
Mq@JiʡB
G
G
GG~
I?
K
GK@K@KT@H@
F
F
F
F~
Ms@J*iʡB
G
G
GG~
I?
K
GK@K@KT@H@
F
F
F
F~
Mq@JpݮʡB
G
G
GG~
I?
K
GK'@K?Kt@HV@
F
F
F
F~
Mq@JʛݮʡB
G
G
GG~
I?
K
GK'@K?Kt@HV@
F
F
F
F~
Ms@J$iʡB
G
G
GG~
I?
K
GK@K@Kp@H@
F
F
F
F~
M@h@D&l8 !"#$%&'()*+,./0123456789:;<=>? J
iʡB
G'
G(
G) G~
I?
K
G K(@K$@KD@H@
F
F
F*
F~
Mu@!JLiʡB
!G'
!G(
!G)!G~
!I?
!K
!G!K(@K$@KD@H@
!F
!
F
!F*
!F~
!Mu@"JhʡB
"G
"G
"GG~
"I?
"K
"G"K@K(@Kd@H{@
"F
"
F
"F
"F~
"M@#JiʡB
#G
#G
#GG~
#I?
#K
#G#K @K@KX@H^@
#F
#
F
#F
#F~
#Mp@$JiݮʡB
$G=
$G>
$G?$G~
$I?
$K
$G$K@K@Kp@Ho@
$F
$
F
$F@
$FA~
$M ~@%JiʡB
%G
%G
%G%G~
%I?
%K
%G%K@@K&@K<@
%H(\?P@
%F
%
F
%F
%F~
%M}@&JiʡB
&G
&G
&GG~
&I?
&K
&G&K@K@KP@H@
&F
&
F
&F
&F~
&Mq@'JݮʡB
'G
'G
'GG~
'I?
'K
'G'K@@K$@Kp@HV@
'F
'
F
'F
'F~
'Mq@(JliʡB
(G
(G
(G(G~
(I?
(K
(G(K/@K@Kt@H^@
(F
(
F
(F
(FH~
(MH@)JKiʡB
)G
)G
)G)G~
)I?
)K
)G)Kr@K?Kd@H^@
)F
)
F
)F
)F~
)M@*J@\iʡB
*G
*G
*G*G~
*I?
*K
*G*K@K$@Kd@H^@
*F
*
F
*F
*F~
*M@@+JiʡB
+Gj
+Gk
+GG~
+I?+K
+G+Ks@K@KL@Ho@
+F
+
F
+Fl
+Fm~
+M@,JiʡB
,Gj
,Gk
,GG~
,I?
,K
,G,Ks@K@KL@H`@
,F
,
F
,Fl
,Fm~
,M@JOiʡB
G
G
GG~
I?
K
GK@u@K&@K4@
H(\Q@
F

F
F
F~
M@@.JiʡB
.GY
.GZ
.GG~
.I@
.K
.G.K@K$@K,@
.H(\R@
.F
.
F
.F[
.F\~
.M@/J4iʡB
/GR
/GS
/GG~
/I?
/K
/G/K@K@K@
/H(\Q@
/F
/
F
/FT
/FU~
/Mr@0JҮʡB
0G
0G
0GG~
0I?
0K
0G0K`0@K@Kt@H^@
0F
0
F
0F
0F~
0MX@1J?hʡB
1G
1G
1GG~
1I?
1K
1G1K@K(@KT@H{@
1F
1
F
1F
1F~
1Mx@2J*<iʡB
2G
2G
2GG~
2I?
2K
2G2K1@K@K0@H\@
2F
2
F
2F
2F~
2Mx@3JiʡB
3G
3G
3GG~
3I@
3K
3G3Kk@K"@K4@H{@
3F
3
F
3F
3F~
3Mz@4JvY
iʡB
4G
4G
4GG~
4I@
4K
4G4K 6@K"@K\@H@
4F
4
F
4F
4F~
4M`x@5JiʡB
5G
5G
5GG~
5I?
5K
5G5K@K@KP@
5H(\Q@
5F
5
F
5F
5F~
5MЃ@6J(iʡB
6G
6G
6GG~
6I?
6K
6G6K`@K@Kh@H@
6F
6
F
6F
6F~
6M@7Jv"iʡB
7G
7G
7G7G~
7I?
7K
7G7KV@K@K`@Ho@
7F
7
F
7F
7F~
7M{@8JliʡB
8G
8G
8GG~
8I?
8K
8G8K c@K@Kx@H@
8F
8
F
8F
8F~
8M`@9JbѮʡB
9Gz
9G{
9GG~
9I@
9K
9G9K@K@Kt@H@
9F
9
F
9F
9F}~
9Mr@:JJMiʡB
:G
:G
:G:G~
:I?
:K
:G:K`0@K@Kt@H@
:F
:
F
:F
:F~
:Mh@;JiʡB
;Gc
;Gd
;GG~
;I?
;K
;G;K@K&@Kh@H{@
;F
;
F
;Fe
;Ff~
;M}@<J@ҮʡB
<G
<G
<GG~
<I?
<K
<G<K c@K@Kx@H@
<F
<
F
<F
<F~
<Mx@=JxiʡB
=G
=G
=GG~
=I@
=K
=G=K k@K@KL@H{@
=F
=
F
=F
=F~
=Mv@>JiʡB
>G
>G
>GG~
>I@
>K
>G>K k@K@KL@H\@
>F
>
F
>F
>F~
>Mu@?JWiʡB
?G
?G
?GG~
?I@
?K
?G?K@K@Kd@H@
?F
?
F
?F
?F~
?My@Dl@ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ[\]^_@JB iʡB
@G
@G
@GG~
@I@
@K
@G@K`@K@K@@H\@
@F
@
F
@F
@F~
@Mt@AJd iʡB
AG
AG
AGG~
AI@
AK
AGAK`@K@K@@H@
AF
A
F
AF
AF~
AMt@BJZiʡB
BGI
BGJ
BGG~
BI?
BK
BGBK R@K@K`@H@
BF
B
F
BFK
BFL~
BMx@CJdhʡB
CG
CG
CGG~
CI?
CK
CGCK&@K$@KD@H@
CF
C
F
CF
CF~
CM~@DJ&
iʡB
DG"
DG#
DG$DG~
DI?DK
DGDK@@K(@K@@H@
DF
D
F
DF%
DF&~
DM~@EJiʡB
EG
EG
EGG~
EI?
EK
EGEK&@K$@KD@
EH(\Q@
EF
E
F
EF
EF~
EM@FJ+hʡB
FG
FG
FGG~
FI?
FK
FGFK/@K(@KD@
FH(\?P@
FF
F
F
FF
FF~
FM`t@GJQiʡB
GG
GG
GGG~
GI?
GK
GGGK/@K(@KD@H[@
GF
G
F
GF
GF~
GMt@HJ4ѮʡB
HG
HG
HGG~
HI?
HK
HGHK5@K@Kt@H@
HF
H
F
HF
HF~
HMy@IJiʡB
IG
IG
IGG~
II@
IK
IGIK"@K@K\@H{@
IF
I
F
IF
IF~
IMy@JJ.%hʡB
JG
JG
JGG~
JI?
JK
JGJK@K@Kd@HV@
JF
J
F
JF
JF~
JMc@KJfiʡB
KG
KG
KGG~
KI?
KK
KGKK@K?KT@H>@
KF
K
F
KF
KF~
KMz@LJaiʡB
LG
LG
LGG~
LI@
LK
LGLKa@K @K`@H@
LF
L
F
LF
LF~
LM @MJ`ciʡB
MGH
MGI
MGG~
MI?
MK
MGMK@K@K,@H[@
MF
M
F
MFJ
MFK~
MM}@NJlHiʡB
NGH
NGI
NGG~
NI?
NK
NGNKH@K&@K0@H@
NF
N
F
NFJ
NFK~
NM}@OJniʡB
OG
OG
OGG~
OI?
OK
OGOK@@K@KT@
OH(\Q@
OF
O
F
OF
OF~
OMq@PJhʡB
PG,
PG
PGG~
PI?
PK
PGPKW@K?Kx@H@
PF
P
F
PF.
PF/~
PM@QJӮʡB
QG/
QG0
QGG~
QI?QK
QGQK@K@K@HV@
QF
Q
F
QF1
QF2~
QMP@RJ.iʡB
RG
RG
RGG~
RI?
RK
RGRK@@K?K@@H`@
RF
R
F
RF
RF~
RM~@SJiʡB
SG
SG
SGG~
SI?
SK
SGSK@@K?K@@Ho@
SF
S
F
SF
SF~
SM~@TJVhʡB
TG
TG
TGTG~
TI?
TK
TGTK`@K@Kh@H>@
TF
T
F
TF
TF~
TMy@UJxhʡB
UG
UG
UGG~
UI?
UK
UGUK`@K&@Kh@H>@
UF
U
F
UF
UF~
UMy@VJiʡB
VG
VG
VGG~
VI?
VK
VGVK@K$@K<@H@
VF
V
F
VF
VF~
VM y@WJyiʡB
WGU
WGV
WGG~
WI@
WK
WGWK@K&@K(@H@
WF
W
F
WFW
WFX~
WM`v@XJ^V
iʡB
XGU
XGV
XGG~
XI@
XK
XGXK`@K@KT@H>@
XF
X
F
XFW
XFX~
XMv@YJ6hʡB
YG
YG
YG
YG~
YI?
YK
YGYK!@K @KD@
YH(\Q@
YF
Y
F
YF
YF~
YM@ZJ\_ѮʡB
ZGu
ZGv
ZGwZG~
ZI?
ZK
ZGZK@b@K@Kx@H@
ZF
Z
F
ZFx
ZFy~
ZMpq@[JhhʡB
[G
[G
[GG~
[I?
[K
[G[K@K(@Kh@HV@
[F
[
F
[F
[F~
[M q@\JOiʡB
\G
\G
\GG~
\I?
\K
\G\K`@K@Kd@H@
\F
\
F
\F
\F~
\M q@]JFhʡB
]G
]G
]GG~
]I?
]K
]G]K@K"@KT@H{@
]F
]
F
]F
]F~
]M@^JziʡB
^G
^G
^GG~
^I?
^K
^G^K!@K @KD@H^@
^F
^
F
^F
^F~
^M@_Jp)iʡB
_Gq
_Gr
_GG~
_I?
_K
_G_K]@K@Kx@H@
_F
_
F
_Fs
_Ft~
_M u@Dl`abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz{}~`JPiʡB
`G@
`GA
`GG~
`I?
`K
`G`K#@K@K@H@
`F
`
F
`FB
`FC~
`Mu@aJ:jʡB
aGB
aGC
aGG~
aI?aK
aGaK @K@Kp@HV@
aF
a
F
aFD
aFE~
aMv@bJ$@ҮʡB
bG
bG
bGbG~
bI?
bK
bGbK c@K@Kx@H@
bF
b
F
bF
bF~
bMps@cJ\ziʡB
cGa
cGb
cGccG~
cI?
cK
cGcK @K@K@H@
cF
c
F
cFd
cFe~
cM`x@dJQhʡB
dG
dG
dGdG~
dI?
dK
dGdKh@K$@K`@H{@
dF
d
F
dF
dF~
dM @eJ
iʡB
eG
eG
eGeG~
eI?
eK
eGeK @K @K@@H{@
eF
e
F
eF
eF!~
eM@fJѮʡB
fG
fG
fGfG~
fI?
fK
fGfK c@K@Kx@H@
fF
f
F
fF
fF~
fMw@gJhʡB
gG
gG
gGgG~
gI?
gK
gGgK@K@Kl@H@
gF
g
F
gF
gF~
gM @hJd*iʡB
hG
hG
hGhG~
hI?
hK
hGhK@K$@K8@H@
hF
h
F
hF
hF~
hM{@iJiʡB
iG
iG
iGiG~
iI?
iK
iGiK @K@Kp@H^@
iF
i
F
iF
iF~
iMЁ@jJ iʡB
jG
jG
jGG~
jI@
jK
jGjK@@@K@KH@Ho@
jF
j
F
jF
jF~
jM@kJXѮʡB
kG
kG
kGG~
kI?
kK
kGkK3@K@Kt@H@
kF
k
F
kF
kF~
kMpq@lJʡB
lGF
lGG
lGlG~
lI?
lK
lGlK @K @Kp@Ho@
lF
l
F
lF
lF~
lM@y@mJiʡB
mG
mG
mGmG~
mI@
mK
mGmK@K@Kd@Ho@
mF
m
F
mF
mF~
mM`@nJhҮʡB
nG%
nG&
nG'nG~
nI?
nK
nGnKH@K"@Kt@
nH(\Q@
nF
n
F
nF(
nF)~
nMf@oJʡB
oG%
oG&
oG'oG~
oI?oK
oGoKH@K"@Kt@HV@
oF
o
F
oF(
oF)~
oMf@pJZhʡB
pG
pG
pGG~
pI?
pK
pGpK 3@K?KH@Ho@
pF
p
F
pF
pF~
pMw@qJvhʡB
qG
qG
qGG~
qI?
qK
qGqKf@K@KL@H{@
qF
q
F
qF
qF~
qM @rJTliʡB
rG
rG
rGG~
rI?
rK
rGrK 3@K?KH@H`@
rF
r
F
rF
rF~
rMw@sJvliʡB
sG
sG
sGG~
sI?
sK
sGsKf@K@KL@H`@
sF
s
F
sF
sF~
sM@tJVhʡB
tG
tG
tGtG~
tI?
tK
tGtK@K$@KT@HV@
tF
t
F
tF
tF~
tMi@uJѮʡB
uG
uG
uGuG~
uI?
uK
uGuK@?@K@Kt@H@
uF
u
F
uF
uF~
uMw@vJiʡB
vG^
vG_
vG`vG~
vI@vK
vGvK@K(@KP@H@
vF
v
F
vFa
vFb~
vM@wJ~iʡB
wG@
wGn
wGG~
wI?
wK
wGwK@K@KP@H@
wF
w
F
wFo
wF~
wMq@xJiʡB
xG@
xGn
xGG~
xI?
xK
xGxK@K@KP@H\@
xF
x
F
xFo
xF~
xMq@yJV$iʡB
yGm
yGn
yGG~
yI?
yK
yGyK`@K@Kd@H@
yF
y
F
yFo
yFp~
yMt@zJiʡB
zGL
zGM
zGNzG~
zI?
zK
zGzK@K(@K @H@
zF
z
F
zFO
zFP~
zMr@{JhʡB
{G
{G
{GG~
{I?
{K
{G{K @K@Kp@H{@
{F
{
F
{F
{F~
{MЃ@J03iʡB
G
G
GG~
I?
K
GK@K@Kh@H{@
F

F
F
F~
Mt@}J6hʡB
}G4
}G5
}GG~
}I?
}K
}G}K@K(@K@H@
}F
}
F
}F6
}F7~
}Mt@~JxӮʡB
~G
~G,
~GG~
~I?
~K
~G~K @K&@K@
~H=
ףp3@
~F
~
F
~F
~F.~
~Mv@JlghʡB
G
G
GG~
I@K
GK j@K@Kx@H@
F
F
F
F~
M@DlJhiʡB
GV
GW
GG~
I?
K
GK@K(@Kd@H{@
F
F
FX
FY~
M`v@JhhʡB
G
G
GG~
I?
K
GK @K@Kl@H@
F
F
F
F+~
Mn@JJZiʡB
GQ
GR
GG~
I?
K
GK@K"@K(@Ho@
F
F
FS
FT~
M}@JpѮʡB
G
G
GG~
I?
K
GKH@K"@Kt@H@
F
F
F
F~
Mt@JiʡB
Gf
Gg
GG~
I?
K
GK@K@Kh@H@
F
F
Fh
Fi~
M~@JҮʡB
Gf
Gg
GG~
I@
K
GK@K@K@H@
F
F
F*
F+~
M@JyiʡB
G
G
GG~
I?
K
GK@K@Kl@H^@
F
F
F
F~
MЈ@J&)ծʡB
G3
G4
GG~
I?
K
GK@@K@K@H@
F
F5
F6
F7~
Mr@JD
iʡB
G
G
G
G~
I?
K
GK@K@KT@
H(\?P@
F
F
F
F~
M}@J.rhʡB
G8
G9G
G~
I?
K
GK:@K"@K@Hޥ@
F
F
F:
F;~
Mm@JhʡB
G
G
G
G~
I?
K
GK`z@K@Kd@H@
F
F
F
F~
Mu@J_hʡB
G
GG
G~
I?
K
GK@J@K@K`@HV@
F
F
F
F~
Mo@JiʡB
G
GG
G~
I?
K
GK`@K@K @H@
F
F
F
F~
Mo@JR] iʡB
G
GG
G~
I?
K
GK(@K$@KD@
H(\R@
F
F
F
F~
Mf@Jp^ iʡB
G
GG
G~
I?
K
GK(@K$@KD@Hn@
F
F
F
F~
Mf@"
{(
{
xA??CambridgePicture 1Cambridge"5]&{`4 >@A
@
7ggD&
Oh+'0@HXh
DankauserMicrosoft Excel@ @g=y՜.+,0 PXdlt
'CUP
!"#$%&'()*+,./0123456789:;<=>?@ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ[\]^_`abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz{}~
!"#$%&'()*+,./0123456789:;<=>?@ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ[\]^_`abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz{}~Root Entry F0αN{WorkbookSummaryInformation(DocumentSummaryInformation8